The eiffel tower

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The Eiffel Tower (French: La Tour Eiffel, [tuʁ ɛfɛl], nickname La dame de fer, the iron woman) is an 1889 iron lattice tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris that has become both a global icon of France and one of the most recognizable structures in the world. The tallest building in Paris,[10] it is the most-visited paid monument in the world; millions of people ascend it every year. Namedfor its designer, engineer Gustave Eiffel, the tower was built as the entrance arch to the 1889 World's Fair.
The tower stands 324 metres (1,063 ft) tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building. It was the tallest man-made structure in the world from its completion until the Chrysler Building in New York City was built in 1930. Not including broadcast antennas, it is the second-talleststructure in France after the 2004 Millau Viaduct.
The tower has three levels for visitors. Tickets can be purchased to ascend, by stairs or lift, to the first and second levels. The walk to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the walk from the first to the second level. The third and highest level is accessible only by lift. Both the first and second levels feature restaurants.
The tower hasbecome the most prominent symbol of both Paris and France, often in the establishing shot of films set in the city.
Contents
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• 1 History
o 1.1 Timeline of events
o 1.2 Engraved names
• 2 Design of the tower
o 2.1 Material
o 2.2 Wind considerations
o 2.3 Maintenance
o 2.4 Aesthetic considerations
• 3 Tourism
o 3.1 Popularity
o 3.2 Passenger lifts
 3.2.1 Ground to thesecond level
 3.2.2 Second to the third level
o 3.3 Restaurants
• 4 Attempted Relocation
• 5 Reproductions
• 6 Communications
o 6.1 FM-radio
o 6.2 Television
• 7 Image copyright claims
• 8 In popular culture
• 9 Taller structures
o 9.1 Lattice towers taller than the Eiffel Tower
o 9.2 Architectural structures in France taller than the Eiffel Tower
• 10 Other structures carrying thisname
• 11 Gallery
• 12 See also
• 13 References
• 14 Further reading
• 15 External links

History


Eiffel Tower under construction in July 1888


Eiffel Tower Construction view: girders at the first story



Panoramic view during ascension of the Eiffel Tower by the Lumière brothers, 1898



Franz Reichelt's preparations and fall from the Eiffel Tower.Lightning strikes the Eiffel Tower on June 3, 1902, at 9:20 P.M.


Adolf Hitler with the Eiffel Tower in the background
The structure was built between 1887 and 1889 as the entrance arch for the Exposition Universelle, a World's Fair marking the centennial celebration of the French Revolution. Three hundred workers joined together 18,038 pieces of puddled iron (a very pure form of structural iron),using two and a half million rivets, in a structural design by Maurice Koechlin. The co-architects of the Eiffel Tower were Emile Nouguier, Maurice Koechlin and Stephen Sauvestre.[11] The risk of accident was great as, unlike modern skyscrapers, the tower is an open frame without any intermediate floors except the two platforms. However, because Eiffel took safety precautions, including the use ofmovable stagings, guard-rails and screens, only one man died. The tower was inaugurated on 31 March 1889, and opened on 6 May.
The tower was much criticised by the public when it was built, with many calling it an eyesore. Newspapers of the day were filled with angry letters from the arts community of Paris. One is quoted extensively in William Watson's US Government Printing Office publicationof 1892 Paris Universal Exposition: Civil Engineering, Public Works, and Architecture: "And during twenty years we shall see, stretching over the entire city, still thrilling with the genius of so many centuries, we shall see stretching out like a black blot the odious shadow of the odious column built up of riveted iron plates."[12] Signers of this letter included Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier,...
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