Chapter 5 – Revolution and Enlightenment (1550-1800)
Section 3 – Colonial Empires and the American Revolution (page 138 to 142)
Main Ideas: The colonies ofLatin America and British North America were developing in ways that differed from their European mother countries. The American colonies revolted against Great Britain and formed a new nation.Colonial Empires in Latin America (page 138 to 139)
In the sixteenth century, Portugal came to dominate Brazil. At the same time, Spain established an enormous colonial empire in the Western hemispherethat included parts of North America, Central America, and most of South America.
Economic Foundations (page 139)
Both the Portuguese and the Spanish sought ways to profit from their colonies inLatin America. One source of wealth came from abundant supplies of gold and silver, which were sent to Europe. Farming, however, proved to be a more long-lasting and rewarding source of prosperityfor Latin America.
State and Church (page 139 to 140)
From the beginning of their conquest of the New World, Spanish and Portuguese rulers were determined to Christianize the native peoples. Thispolicy gave the Catholic Church an important role to play in the Americas - a role that added considerably to the Church’s power.
Catholic missionaries – especially the Dominicans, Franciscans, andJesuits – fanned out to different parts of the Spanish Empire.
The Catholic Church built cathedrals, hospitals, orphanages, and schools in the colonies. The schools taught Native American studentsthe basics for reading, writing, and arithmetic. The Catholic Church also provided an outlet other than marriage for women. They could enter convents and became nuns.
Britain and British NorthAmerica (page 140)
In eighteenth-century Britain, the monarch and the Parliament shared power, with Parliament gradually gaining the upper hand. The monarch chose ministers who were responsible to...