Juan Ceballos Cerrajería
EN0549 Photovoltaics-Economics, Policy and Environment
(Date: April, 2010)
We are going to discuss the different policies that the main European countries have set for the implementation of the renewable energies, especially the photovoltaic power.
Their differenttargets will be presented and also their policies to achieve them. After, a simple evaluation will be made in order to compare the different supporting measures.
II. European Targets
The EU as a group has set different targets for the global union and for each one of the members. In order to avoid the climate change by investing in renewable energies, which also means the creation of new jobs,the reduction of the European independence of energy from out seas (it is expected to be about 80% by 2020 if nothing is done ), especially oil and gas supply, and the creation a leader market within the REs (Renewable Energies) field.
However the EU’s Directive 2003/54/EC that pretend to open the energy market in the whole EU, there are still many physical, administrative and commercialbarriers which make that complicated.
The renewable Directive 2001/77/EC was created and also the Directive 2003/30/EC for the use of renewable fuels in transport. They set few targets to achieve by 2010, the present year. Within this regulatory framework:
- 21 % of the electricity consumed in the EU by 2010 shall have been produced from renewable energy sources . See annexe I for moredetails.
- Also a 12% of the total energy consumption has to come from renewable sources .
- A 5.75% of the fuel consumption has to come from renewable sources .
- A reduction of the CO2 emissions by 402 million ton each year for 2010.
- Reduction of the fuel importations by a 17.4%.
However those objectives proposed were not signed by abinding kind-of contract, hence each country assumed its responsibility to reach the objectives but no penalties were previewed in case that was not the case. That is probably why those targets have not been achieved so far but most probably they will not be. It is expected that this year we will reach a 19% of “green” electricity since many countries are behind the schedule .
Also the EU has setfew targets for 2020 approved in December 2008 and confirmed in the Directive 2009/28/EC, those are, briefly [6, 7]:
- Cutting the green house gases (GHGs) by, at least 20% of 1990 levels.
- The increase of renewable energies (wind, solar, biomass, etc) to 20% of the total energy consumption. Currently we are about 8.5%. See annexe II for more details.
- At least 10% of thefuel consumption has to come from renewable sources.
- Cutting energy consumption by 20% of 2020 projected levels, by improving energy efficiency.
Personal targets for each country have been set, depending on their current situation.
To reach the global objective, it has been calculated that a 30-35% of the electricity has to come from renewable energies, where a 5% will come from PVpower as state Giovanni Federigo De Santi, director at the Institute for Energy (IE), JRC – European Commission, .
The value of 5% for PV differs from other sources such as Pierre Dechamps, Adviser for Energy and Climate Change at the Bureau of European Policy Advisers, who stated that value around 2-3% . Notice that at the moment, PV power only represents a 0.4% hence a really biggrowth is needed.
The way how to achieve those objectives is a free choice for each country but they are obliged to do it since they have signed those binding national targets that they have to achieve. However, no one can say what will be the consequences for those countries that will not reach the targets.
The European countries have until June 2010 to present their individual action plans....