r egrbg ef vbeb jknbjkvenv kjnbvkjenkjvn wekjnvjdnbvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvhristopherson, RW (1996) Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography. Prentice Hall Inc.
↑ a b Tansley, AG (1935) The use and abuse of vegetational termsand concepts. Ecology 16, 284-307.
↑ «The whole system,… including not only the organism-complex, but also the whole complex of physical factors forming what we call the environment». Op. cit.Tansley, pág. 284-307.
↑ Tansley, AG (1939) The British islands and their vegetation. Volume 1 of 2. Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom. 484 pg.
↑ «Any unit that includes all of the organisms(ie: the "community") in a given area interacting with the physical environment so that a flow of energy leads to clearly defined trophic structure, biotic diversity, and material cycles (ie:exchange of materials between living and nonliving parts) within the system is an ecosystem.» Odum, EP (1971) Fundamentals of ecology, third edition, Saunders New York
↑ «the protection of ecosystems,natural habitats and the maintenance of viable populations of species in natural surroundings» United Nations Environment Programme. Convention on Biological Diversity. June 1992. UNEP Document no.Na.92-78. Reprint
↑ «dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit»
↑ Möller-Dombois & Ellenberg: "A Tentative...