Tobe

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TO BE [=ser, estar…]
Como todos los verbos auxiliares, para hacer la negativa se le añade NOT y para la interrogativa basta con cambiar el orden (en lugar de Sujeto + Verbo, ponemos Verbo + Sujeto?).
Simple Present
I am (I'm)
You are (You're)
He/She/It is (He's/ she's/ It's)
We are (We're)
You are (You're)
They are (They're) | I'm not
You aren't
He/she/it isn't
We aren'tYou aren't
They aren't | Am I?
Are you?
Is he/she/it?
Are we?
Are you?
Are they? |
Simple Past
I was
You were
He/She/It was
We were
You were
They were | I wasn't
You weren't
He/She/It wasn't
We weren't
You weren't
They weren't | Was I?
Were you?
Was he/she/it?
Were we?
Were you?
Were they? |
THERE BE [=haber impersonal: "hay", "había"…]
Simple PresentThere is
There are | There isn't
There aren't | Is there?
Are there? |
Simple Past
There was
There were | There wasn't
There weren't | Was there?
Were there? |
Nota: funciona igual que el verbo TO BE, pero colocando el pronombre impersonal «there» como sujeto, tanto en tiempos compuestos:
"There has been enough money"
como con verbos modales:
"There must be a reason".
TOHAVE (GOT) [=tener]
Simple Present
I have (I've) got
You have (You've) got
He/She/It has (He's) got
We have (We've) got
You have (You've) got
They have (They've) got | I haven't got
You haven't got
He/She/It hasn't got
We haven't got
You haven't got
They haven't got | Have I got?
Have you got?
Has he/she/it got?
Have we got?
Have you got?
Have they got? |
TOHAVE [verbo principal = tomar, comer...]
Simple Present
I have
You have
He/She/It has
We have
You have
They have | I don't have
You don't have
He/She/It doesn't have
We don't have
You don't have
They don't have | Do I have?
Do you have?
Does he/she/it have?
Do we have?
Do you have?
Do they have? |
Simple Past
I had
You had
He/She/It had
We had
You hadThey had | I didn't have
You didn't have
He/She/It didn't have
We didn't have
You didn't have
They didn't have | Did I have?
Did you have?
Did he/she/it have?
Did we have?
Did you have?
Did they have? |

EXPRESIONES CON «BE» y «HAVE»

• En inglés, las expresiones «tener X años, hambre, sed, frío, calor, cuidado, miedo…» se forman con BE + adjetivo:
«be X years old,hungry, thirsty, cold, hot, careful, afraid…»

• También la hora se expresa con BE:
What's the time? / What time is it?
It is [hour] o'clock
It is (a) quarter past [hour]
It is half past [hour]
It is (a) quarter to [hour]
It is [minutes past [hour]
It is [minutes] to [hour]

• Igualmente se expresa con BE el tiempo atmosférico:
What's the weather like?
It's hot / warm / nice /cool / cold / sunny / cloudy / windy / raining / snowing …

• En inglés, los verbos de las comidas se forman con HAVE + el nombre de la comida:
«have breakfast, lunch, dinner, tea, supper»

• Otras expresiones con HAVE: «have a shower, …a bath, …a walk, …a rest, …a look, …a cigarette, …a drink»
PRONOMBRES PERSONALES y POSESIVOS
Los pronombres personales pueden ser de SUJETO (siempre sonsujeto de un verbo y es la única función que pueden cumplir) y de OBJETO (directo, indirecto, preposicional).
Los posesivos pueden ser ADJETIVOS (van siempre delante de un nombre, como cualquier adjectivo) y PRONOMBRES (sustituyen a un nombre con adjetivo posesivo; nunca llevan artículo. Ej: "my books" ---> "mine"; no *the mine, ni *mines).
personal pronouns | | possessive | |
subject |object | adjectives | pronouns |
I
you
he
she
it
we
you
they | me
you
him
her
it
us
you
them | my
your
his
her
its
our
your
their | mine
yours
his
hers
its
ours
yours
theirs |

REGLAS DEL PLURAL
• Regla general: añadir una -S al singular: book --> bookS, tree --> treeS
• Si el nombre acaba en: -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -o,...
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