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  • Publicado : 8 de diciembre de 2011
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A tornado is a meteorological phenomenon which is a rotating column of air violently, its lower end is in contact with the Earth's surface and top with a cumulonimbus cloud or, exceptionally, with the base of cumulus cloud. 1 This is the most intense weather phenomenon known.Tornadoes come in different sizes and shapes but generally have the shape of a funnel cloud, whose narrow end touches the ground and is usually surrounded by a cloud of debris and dust. Most tornadoes have winds reaching speeds between 65 and 180 km / h, measuring about 75 meters wide and several kilometers before moving away. The most extreme can have wind speeds that can rotate at 450 km / h or more,measuring up to 2 km wide and remain touching the ground for over 100 km of recorrido.2 April 3
Among the different types of terrestrial tornadoes are waterspouts, multiple vortex tornadoes and waterspouts. The latter are formed on water bodies, connecting to the storm clouds cumulus and larger, but they are considered tornadoes because they have characteristics similar to those formed on land, asthe air current in funnel-shaped rotation. Waterspouts are usually classified as non-supercell tornadoes that form over bodies of air agua.5 These columns often are generated in intertropical areas close to the tropics or the continental areas of subtropical latitudes of the temperate zones, and are less common at higher latitudes, closer to the poles or in the lower latitudes, close to Ecuadorterrestre.6 Other phenomena like tornadoes that occur in nature include gustnado and swirls of dust, heat and steam. Tornadoes can destroy everything in its path: cars, houses ... They can be accompanied by tropical storms or hurricanes power.
Tornadoes are detected by pulse Doppler radar and visually for storm chasers. They were observed on every continent except Antarctica. However, the vastmajority of the world's tornadoes occur in the U.S. region known as Tornado Alley, but can form almost anywhere in America Norte.7 8 also occur occasionally in the south-central and eastern Asia, North and central-eastern South America, Southern Africa, northwestern and southeastern Europe, western and southeastern Australia and New Zelanda.9
There are several different scales to rate the strengthof tornadoes. Fujita-Pearson scale evaluates them according to the damage caused, and has been replaced in some countries by the enhanced Fujita scale, an updated version of the above. F0 or EF0 tornado, the weakest category, cause damage to trees but not to structures.F5 or EF5 tornado, the strongest category, started building their foundations and can produce significant structural deformationsrascacielos.10 TORRO scale ranging from extremely weak tornado T0 to T11 for the strongest tornadoes can also be conocen.11 analyzed data from Doppler radars and circulation patterns left on the ground (cycloidal marks) and used photogrammetry to determine the intensity and assign a rank
The word "Tornado" is an English-lending, which came from the Spanish "throne", which according to the SAR,refers to a "thunderstorm" .13 The metathesis is undoubtedly due to a reinterpretation of the word under the influence of "turn" 14 15

Funnel Cloud
A tornado is not necessarily visible, but the low atmospheric pressure that's inside it and causes high wind velocity according to Bernoulli's principle, as well as its rapid rotation (due to the balance ciclostrófico) usually cause the water vapor inthe air to become visible to condense into droplets of water, taking the form of a funnel cloud or funnel cloud funnel condensación.19 When extending at least half the distance between the ground and the cloud base, which is often less than two kilometers, 1 is considered a tornado.20

Families and waves
Main articles: A family of tornadoes, tornadoes and Sequence Surge waves of tornadoes...
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