Toxicologia ambiental

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TOXICOLOGIA AMBIENTAL
Evaluación de Riesgos y Restauración Ambiental

Carlos E. Peña Dean E. Carter Felix Ayala-Fierro

Southwest Hazardous Waste Program
A Superfund Basic Research and Training Program At the College of Pharmacy The University of Arizona © 2001

RECONOCIMIENTO Este trabajo se realizó gracias al apoyo del InstitutoNacional de Ciencias de la Salud Ambiental del Gobierno de los Estados Unidos de América dentro del Proyecto de Investigación Básica para el Superfund otorgado a la Universidad de Arizona (Grant P42 ESO 4940).

COPYRIGHT This document is copyright © Carlos E. Peña, Dean E. Carter and Felix Ayala-Fierro, The University of Arizona 1996-2001. This Adobe Acrobat™ version was prepared as a courtesyfor offline reading from the original online version, which is available at http://superfund.pharmacy.arizona.edu/toxamb/. The online version is the latest and only authoritative version. This document may be reproduced in whole or in part, without fee, subject to the following restrictions: • • • The copyright notice above and this permission notice must be preserved complete on all completeor partial copies. If you distribute this work in part, instructions for obtaining the complete original version of this document must be included. Small portions may be reproduced as illustrations for reviews or quotes in other works without this permission notice if proper citation is given.

Exceptions to these rules may be granted for academic purposes by contacting the author.

How tocite this document The original online version should be cited: Peña, Carlos E., Dean E. Carter and Felix Ayala-Fierro. 2001. Toxicologia Ambiental: Evaluación de Riesgos y Restauración Ambiental. Distributed on the Internet via the Southwest Hazardous Waste Program website at http://superfund.pharmacy.arizona.edu/toxamb/.

TABLA DE CONTENIDO

1

INTRODUCCIÓN

8

1.1 ELEMENTOS DEBIOLOGÍA ...........................................................................................................................8 1.1.1 Bioquímica........................................................................................................................................8 1.1.2 Citología.........................................................................................................................................23 1.1.3 Fisiología ........................................................................................................................................30 1.2 DEFINICIÓN DE CONCEPTOS BÁSICOS ........................................................................................................40 1.2.1 Toxicología ambiental....................................................................................................................40 1.2.2 Medio ambiente ..............................................................................................................................40 1.2.3 Exposición......................................................................................................................................41 1.2.4 Blanco .............................................................................................................................................41 1.2.5 Ruta de exposición..........................................................................................................................41 1.2.6 Efecto tóxico...................................................................................................................................42 1.2.7 Dosis ...............................................................................................................................................42 1.2.8 Susceptibilidad individual...............................................................................................................43 1.2.9 Suposiciones...
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