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STUDENT’S MANUAL TO ACCOMPANY

OPERATING SYSTEM CONCEPTS
SEVENTH EDITION

ABRAHAM SILBERSCHATZ Yale University PETER BAER GALVIN Corporate Technologies GREG GAGNE Westminster College

Preface
This volume is a student’s manual for the Seventh Edition of Operating System Concepts, by Abraham Silberschatz, Peter Baer Galvin, and Greg Gagne. It consists of answers to the exercises in theparent text. Although we have tried to produce a student’s manual that will aid all of the users of our book as much as possible, there can always be improvements (improved answers, additional questions, sample test questions, programming projects, alternative orders of presentation of the material, additional references, and so on). We invite you, both instructors and students, to help us improvethis manual. If you have better solutions to the exercises or other items that would be of use with Operating System Concepts, we invite you to send them to us for consideration in later editions of this manual. All contributions will, of course, be properly credited to their contributor. Internet electronic mail should be addressed to os-book@cs.yale.edu. Physical mail may be sent to AviSilberschatz, Yale University, Department of Computer Science, 51 Prospect Street, P.O. box 208285, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. A. S. P. B. G G. G.

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Contents
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19 Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter23 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Operating-System Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 CPU Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Process Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Deadlocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Memory Management . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Virtual Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 File-Systems Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 File-Systems Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Mass Storage Structure . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 I/O Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57Distributed System Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Distributed File Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Distributed Coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Real-Time Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 MultimediaSystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 The Linux System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Influential Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

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