Final Project: Part 2
Titular Prof.: Dr. Mohammad Ayub Khan
Tutor: Grace Lingow
Ana Sofía Molina Sanchez 510379
Ana Laura Guevara Martínez 510462
Eduardo Arturo García 510420
Omar Bautista Escobedo 510384
Rosa Martha HernándezAvalos 510378
October 11, 2009.
12 Negotiating Variables
1. Negotiation: The process in which two or more entities come together to discuss common and conflicting interests in order to get an agreement of mutual benefit. As they try to find their way toward agreement, the parties focus on interests, issues, and positions, and use cooperative and/or competitive processes to come to an agreement.The nature of their interdependence will have a major impact on the nature of their relationship, the way negotiations are conducted, and the outcomes of these negotiations.
2. Selection of Negotiators: There are various criteria for selection of negotiators, and varies from culture to culture. Usually, the criteria include knowledge of the subject matter, negotiating experience, personalattributes (affability, loyalty, trustworthiness) & status (seniority, family connections, gender age, sex and political affiliation). Different cultures assign different importance to these criteria in the choosing of negotiators.
3. Role of Individual Aspirations: The method of identifying the counterpart’s goal out of the two goals categories: individualism and collectivism. Undercollectivist-oriented goals, negotiators act on behalf of their companies & associates, while under the individualist view, negotiators may act for their own personal interests.
4. Concern with protocol: The adherence to rules for acceptable self-presentation, customs and social behavior during the process of negotiations and cultural adaptors can affect the process of negotiation. The degree of formalityused by the parties in the negotiation is usually affected by their cultures. These formalities/informalities help establish amicable relations, which are considered in many countries to be necessary prerequisite to business discussions.
5. Significance of type of issue: Regards the kinds of subjects on the agenda leading up to and during negotiations, and consists of two types of issues:substantive and relationship-based. In substantive issues, negotiators focus on the control and use of resources, and in relationship-based issues, negotiators focus on their mutual or reciprocal interest concerning the ongoing topic.
6. Complexity of Language: The communication method of transmitting messages during negotiation, and it consists not only of the spoken word, but also of non-verbalcommunication by eye contact, facial expression, space & friendship, which help transmit messages. The understanding of the other party’s verbal and non-verbal communication is critical for negotiating and knowing how to react according to their behaviors. Further adaptability to the local languages is a factor that would influence the process of negotiation.
7. Nature of Persuasive Argument:represents the approaches to persuasion and how disputants present their goals and respond to others, it consists of two styles: logic and emotion. Under logical persuasion, negotiators try to use their tactics with empirical evidence, and under emotional persuasion, negotiators tryto use their tactics to appeal to their counterparts by expressing their emotions, or referring to their values orbeliefs.
8. Value of time: Time plays an important role in any negotiation, for the fact that it is precisely the cost of time, both in terms of money and utility, which often motivate the bargaining process. The importance of setting appointments, the punctuality expected, and urgency of deadlines determines how the negotiation process occurs as well as the outcome. The lower any given bargainer's...