The Influence of Terrorism on the International Tourism Activities
Mohammad Nayef Alsarayreh Hotel and Tourism Management Department Al,balqa applied University,Jordan,Aqapa E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: +962777198864 Omar A.A. Jawabreh Hotel and Tourism Management Department Al,balqa applied University, Jordan, AqapaE-mail: email@example.com Mahmoud S. Helalat Director of Tourism Department, M.O.T.A.Jordan, Aqapa E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel:+962777806992; Fax: +96232013363 Abstract In this study the researcher tried to reveal the connection between tourism and politics and overviewed the negative impact of politics on tourism activities through reviewing the literature written in this field and alsothrough the observation of the researcher, in addition to the collection of secondary data from different sources. The cases and the data presented in this study approved the connection between tourism in all its forms and between politics. The cases and the secondary data were taken from different parts of the world. The cases covered the impact of wars, political instability, internationalpolitical tension and terrorism and all of the cases revealed the negative impact of politics on tourism whether on the local level or on the international one. The impact of politics on tourism comes through impacting the travel decisions of the tourists during the phase of planning their holidays and selecting their destinations. The study indicated that tourism is a major component of internationalpolitics and tourism is also impacted by ideology. Wars are destructive for tourism not only in the countries where wars take place but also to the neighboring countries. Terrorism, which is unpredictable and which may take place at anytime and anywhere, has also a major negative impact on tourism. The secondary data collected from different sources indicated the decline of tourism due to wars,political instability and terrorism in Jordan, Egypt, Palestine and Israel and other parts of the world. The results of the study indicated that tourism is negatively impacted by wars, political conflicts, international political relationships, political instability and terrorism. In addition to that the results indicated that, tourism is used by different countries as a vehicle of pressure againstother countries for different purposes and to achieve political goals. Moreover, ideology plays a critical role in tourism. The idea of peace through tourism was discussed in the study and the findings indicated that tourism promotes cultural exchange and cross-cultural understanding and international peace. At the end of the study the researcher stipulated different recommendations concerning thesubject of this study. 145
European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 13, Number 1 (2010) Keywords: Tourism, tourists, politics, politicians, political relationships, political stability, instability, propaganda, media, peace, image, influence, reputation, impact, negative, riots, disruption, civil war, terrorism, terrorist, tension, civil war, coups, strike, international tourism, inboundand outbound tourism.
Tourism is considered as one of the largest, fast growing and jobs generating industries in the world. However; due to its nature which include traveling from one place to another and from one country to another it is a subject for impacts by different elements, which include but not limited to politics and international relationships. A lot of people donot think that there is a relationship between tourism and politics, however; a closer look reveal that politics has a great impact on tourism specially during political tension between different countries where we found politicians in authority warn their citizens from traveling to other designated countries due to political instability or possibility of war. Moreover; some countries use tourism...