Turmeric processing

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Turmeric
(Extension Pamphlet)

TURMERIC

Turmeric

(Extension Pamphlet)

Contributors Kandiannan K., Sasikumar B., Thankamani C.K., Suseela Bhai R., Santhosh J. Eapen, Devasahayam. S. and John Zachariah T. Editors Kandiannan K., Thankamani C. K., Srinivasan V., Rajeev P.

Publisher V. A. Parthasarathy Director Indian Institute of Spices Research Calicut Re-published by

SpicesBoard Ministry of Commerce & Industry Government of India Cochin – 682 025

Copies - 6000 February 2009

Printed at Niseema Printers & Publishers, Kochi - 18 2

TURMERIC

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) (Family: Zingiberaceae) is used as condiment, dye, drug and cosmetic in addition to its use in religious ceremonies. India is a leading producer and exporter of turmeric in the world. Andhra Pradesh,Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Karnataka, West Bengal, Gujarat, Meghalaya, Maharashtra, Assam are some of the important states cultivates turmeric, of which, Andhra Pradesh alone occupies 35.0% of area and 47.0 per cent of production. During 2006-2007, the country produced 8,37,200 tonnes of turmeric from an area of 1,86,000 ha. Climate and soil Turmeric can be grown in diverse tropical conditions from sealevel to 1500 meters above sea level, at a temperature range of 20-35oC with an annual rainfall of 1500 mm or more, under rainfed or irrigated conditions. Though it can be grown on different types of soils, it thrives best in welldrained sandy or clay loam soils with a pH range of 4.5-7.5 with good organic status. Varieties A number of cultivars are available in the country and are known mostly bythe name of locality where they are cultivated. Some of the popular cultivars are Duggirala, Tekkurpet, Sugandham, Amalapuram, Erode local, Alleppey, Moovattupuzha, and Lakdong. The improved varieties of turmeric and their salient features are given in Table 1. Cultivation Preparation of land The land is prepared with the receipt of early monsoon showers. The soil is brought to a fine tilth bygiving about four deep ploughings. Hydrated lime @ 500 kg/ha has to be applied for laterite soils and thoroughly ploughed. Immediately with the receipt of pre-monsoon showers, beds of 1.0 m width, 15 cm height and of convenient length are prepared with spacing of 50 cm between beds. Planting is also done by forming ridges and furrows. Planting In Kerala and other West Coast areas where the rainfallbegins early, the crop can be planted during April-May with the receipt of pre-monsoon showers.

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TURMERIC Table 1. Characteristics of improved turmeric varieties Sl Variety No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Mean Crop Dry Curyield duration recovery cumin (fresh) (days) (%) (%) (t/ha) Suvarna 17.4 200 20.0 4.3 Suguna 29.3 190 12.0 7.3 Sudarsana 28.8 190 12.0 5.3 IISR Prabha 37.5 19519.5 6.5 IISR Prathibha 39.1 188 18.5 6.2 Co-1 30.0 285 19.5 3.2 BSR-1 30.7 285 20.5 4.2 Krishna 9.2 240 16.4 2.8 Sugandham 15.0 210 23.3 3.1 Roma 20.7 250 31.0 9.3 Suroma 20.0 255 26.0 9.3 Ranga 29.0 250 24.8 6.3 Rasmi 31.3 240 23.0 6.4 Rajendra Sonia 42.0 225 18.0 8.4 IISR Alleppey Supreme 35.4 210 19.3 6.0 IISR Kedaram 34.5 210 18.9 5.5 Oleoresin (%) 13.5 13.5 15.0 15.0 16.2 6.7 4.0 3.8 11.013.2 13.1 13.5 13.4 16.0 13.6 Essential oil (%) 7.0 6.0 7.0 6.5 6.2 3.2 3.7 2.0 2.7 4.2 4.4 4.4 4.4 5.0 4.0 3.0

Source of planting material Sl. nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 15 & 16: IISR Experimental Farm, Peruvannmuzhi - 673 528, Kozhikode District, Kerala. Sl. nos. 6 and 7: Department of Spices and Plantation Crops, Faculty of Horticulture, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003, TamilNadu. Sl. no. 8: Maharashtra Agricultural University, Kasba Digraj -416 305, Maharashtra. Sl. no. 9: Spices Research Station, Gujarat Agricultural University, Jagudan-382 701, Gujarat. Sl. nos. 10, 11, 12 & 13: High Altitude Research Station, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Pottangi - 764 039, Orissa. Sl. no. 14: Department of Horticulture, Tirhut College of Agriculture,...
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