Wojciech Matusik Hanspeter Pﬁster∗ Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories, Cambridge, MA.
Figure 1: 3D TV system. Left (top to bottom): Array of 16 cameras and projectors. Middle: Rear-projection 3D display with double-lenticular screen. Right: Front-projection 3D display withsingle-lenticular screen.
Three-dimensional TV is expected to be the next revolution in the history of television. We implemented a 3D TV prototype system with real-time acquisition, transmission, and 3D display of dynamic scenes. We developed a distributed, scalable architecture to manage the high computation and bandwidth demands. Our system consists of an array of cameras, clustersof network-connected PCs, and a multi-projector 3D display. Multiple video streams are individually encoded and sent over a broadband network to the display. The 3D display shows high-resolution (1024 × 768) stereoscopic color images for multiple viewpoints without special glasses. We implemented systems with rear-projection and front-projection lenticular screens. In this paper, we provide adetailed overview of our 3D TV system, including an examination of design choices and tradeoffs. We present the calibration and image alignment procedures that are necessary to achieve good image quality. We present qualitative results and some early user feedback. We believe this is the ﬁrst real-time end-to-end 3D TV system with enough views and resolution to provide a truly immersive 3D experience.CR Categories: B.4.2 [Input/Output and Data Communications]: Input/Output Devices—Image Display Keywords: Autostereoscopic displays, multiview displays, camera arrays, projector arrays, lightﬁelds, image-based rendering
Humans gain three-dimensional information from a variety of cues. Two of the most important ones are binocular parallax,scientifically studied by Wheatstone in 1838, and motion parallax, described by Helmholtz in 1866. Binocular parallax refers to seeing a different image of the same object with each eye, whereas motion parallax refers to seeing different images of an object when moving the head. Wheatstone was able to scientiﬁcally prove the link between parallax and depth perception using a steroscope – the world’sﬁrst three-dimensional display device [Okoshi 1976]. Ever since, researchers have proposed and developed devices to stereoscopically display images. These three-dimensional displays hold tremendous potential for many applications in entertainment, information presentation, reconnaissance, tele-presence, medicine, visualization, remote manipulation, and art. In 1908, Gabriel Lippmann, who made majorcontributions to color photography and three-dimensional displays, contemplated producing a display that provides a “window view upon reality” [Lippmann 1908]. Stephen Benton, one of the pioneers of holographic imaging, reﬁned Lippmann’s vision in the 1970s. He set out to design a scalable spatial display system with television-like characteristics, capable of delivering full color, 3D images withproper occlusion relationships. The display should provide images with binocular parallax (i.e., stereoscopic images) that can be viewed from any viewpoint without special glasses. Such displays are called multiview autostereoscopic since they naturally provide binocular and motion parallax for multiple observers. 3D video usually refers to stored animated sequences, whereas 3D TV includesreal-time acquisition, coding, and transmission of dynamic scenes. In this paper we present the ﬁrst end-to-end 3D TV system with 16 independent high-resolution views and autostereoscopic display. Research towards the goal of end-to-end 3D TV started in Japan after the Tokyo Olympic Games in 1964 [Javidi and Okano 2002]. Most of that research focused on the development of binocular stereo cameras and...