Unit 7

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Passive voice/active voice (present & past)
In the active sentences the subject does the action. In the passive sentences, the subject is acted upon.
We form the passive voice with the verb to be (present/past) + Past Participle
Active Voice | Passive Voice |
Most people drink water when they’re exercising. | Water is drunk by most people when they’reexercising. |
The dog bit the boy. | The boy was bitten by the dog. |
185 countries sell Coca-Cola. | Coca-Cola is sold in 185 countries. |
Someone stole my iPhone. | My iPhone was stolen. |

Present Perfect with just and already.
We form the Present Perfect with have/has + Past Participle. The contraction of have is ‘ve, the contraction of has is ‘s .
We use just inthe Present Perfect to describe a very recent event.
I have just climbed a mountain, I’m exhausted.
She has just had her breakfast.
We use already in the Present perfect to describe a recent event that happens earlier than expected.
The bus has already left.
I’ve already seen the film.
make and do
We use ‘do’ to express activities or jobs like do business, do homework, dohousework, do the ironing. There are some standard expressions that take the verb ‘do’ like do the best, do good, do a favour, do damage.
We use ‘make’ to express an activity that creates something you can touch, like make food, make a cup of coffee, make a mess, make money. There are some standard expressions that take the verb ‘make’, like

make a difference, make progress, make noise, make amistake, make plans.
I suppose/ I guess: You use I suppose/ I guess when you reflect on something or you’re not sure.
Well, I guess I spend a lot of money on music.
Yes, I suppose I’m very careful with money.
A: Do you want to earn more money?
B: I guess so.

A: Can you help me do the washing up?
B: I suppose so.

You bet money – on a horse race/ competitions/ poker/ games.You borrow money – from a friend.
You earn money – working/ at work.
You invest money – in property/ something useful you want.
You save money – in a bank account/ in a piggy bank.
You spend money – on clothes/ on food/ something you need.
You waste money – on cigarettes/ candies/ something you don’t need.
You win money – on the lottery/ from a game you win.
mean (money) – is an adjectivereferred to someone who doesn’t lend or waste money.

‘The advert shows…’, refers to the things you can see.
Ex. The advert shows a though guy riding a motorcycle on a road next to a man on a bike.

‘It is advertising…’, refers to the product.
Ex. It’s advertising a brand-new motorcycle.

‘It is targeted at…’, refers to the people who is directed to.
Ex. It’s targeted at motorcyclists.‘I think the message is…’, refers to the opinion of what the message is about.
Ex. I think the message is to buy a motorcycle because it’s faster than a bike.


Past Perfect
We use the Past Perfect to show that one action happened before another in the past. To form the Past Perfect, we use the verb had + Past Participle. The contraction of had is ‘d. Be careful not to confuse itwith ‘d = would.


He was sad because he had lost his job.
When we got to the station, the train had already left.
When he died, he had had difficulties.
They were resting because they had played many hours.
We played cards after the children had got asleep.

don’t you think?/ isn’t he?
We use don’t you think?, isn’t he/she/it?, aren’t you/they?, when we want to ask an agreement oropinion.

He’s a gentleman, isn’t he?
They are really annoying, aren’t they?
Feynman is better than Faraday, don’t you think?

NOTE: We only use isn’t he/she/it?, aren’t they/you? with the verb to be.

We agree a statement with ‘So do I/Nor do I’, we disagree with ‘I do/ I don’t’.


A: I think he’s gentleman
B: So do I.

A: I don’t know anything about physics.
B: Nor do...
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