The university is located in Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Cambridge's status was enhanced by a charter in 1231 from King Henry III of England which awarded the ius non trahi extra (a right to discipline its own members) plus some exemption from taxes, and a bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX that gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach everywhere inChristendom. After Cambridge was described as a studium general in a letter by Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, and confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to come and visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses. Cambridge's colleges were originally an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old asthe university itself. The colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars. There were also institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were gradually absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some indicators of their time, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse in 1284, Cambridge's first college. Many collegeswere founded during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but colleges continued to be established throughout
the centuries to modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and Downing in 1800. The most recently established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college statusin March 2010, making it the newest full college (it was previously an "Approved Society" affiliated with the university).
Relationship to the University of Oxford
Rivalry between the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge is a phenomenon going back many centuries. During most of that time, the two were the only universities in England and Wales, making the rivalry more intense than it is now.The University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, sometimes collectively known as Oxbridge, are the two oldest universities in the United Kingdom. Both were founded more than 800 years ago, and between them they have produced a large number of Britain's most prominent scientists, writers and politicians, as well as noted figures in many other fields. Competition between Oxford and Cambridgealso has a long history, dating back to around 1209 when Cambridge was founded by scholars taking refuge from hostile townsmen in Oxford.
Organization & Administration
Renown Students & achievements
Understanding the scientific method, by Francis Bacon The laws of motion and the development of calculus, by Sir Isaac Newton The development of thermodynamics, by Lord Kelvin Thediscovery of the electron, by J. J. Thomson The splitting of the atom, by Ernest Rutherford and of the nucleus by Sir John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton The unification of electromagnetism, by James Clerk Maxwell The discovery of hydrogen, by Henry Cavendish Theory of Evolution by natural selection, by Charles Darwin Mathematical synthesis of Darwinian selection with Mundelein genetics, byRonald Fisher The Turing machine, a basic model for computation, by Alan Turing The structure of DNA, by Rosalind Franklin, Francis Crick, James D. Watson and Maurice Wilkins, the later three awarded the Nobel Prize.(Rosalind Franklin didn't receive the Nobel Prize as it was not given posthumously) Pioneering quantum mechanics, by Paul Dirac
Schools, faculties and departments
In addition tothe 31 colleges, the university is made up of over 150 departments, faculties, schools, syndicates and other institutions. Members of these are usually also members of one or more of the colleges and responsibility for running the entire academic program of the university is divided amongst them. A "School" in the University of Cambridge is a broad administrative grouping of related faculties...