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Monograph Number: 1636
Title: Caffeine
CAS Registry Number: 58-08-2
CAS Name: 3,7-Dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione
Additional Names: 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine; 1,3,7-trimethyl-2,6-dioxopurine; coffeine; thein; guaranine; methyltheobromine
Trademarks: No-Doz (Bristol-Myers Squibb)
Molecular Formula: C8H10N4O2
Molecular Weight: 194.19.
Percent Composition: C 49.48%,H 5.19%, N 28.85%, O 16.48%
Literature References: Naturally occurring alkaloid commonly found in tea leaves, coffee beans, cocoa beans, maté leaves, guarana paste and kola nuts. Originally isolated from coffee in 1821. Synthesis: E. Fischer, Ber. 15, 453 (1882); E. Fischer, L. Ach, ibid. 28, 3135 (1895); W. Traube, ibid. 33, 1371, 3035 (1900); H. Bredereck et al., ibid. 83, 201 (1950).Crystal structure: D. J. Sutor, Acta Crystallogr. 11, 453 (1958). Arrhythmogenic effects in humans: D. J. Dobmeyer et al., N. Engl. J. Med. 308, 814 (1983). Teratogenicity study: P. E. Palm et al., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 44, 1 (1978). HPLC determn in serum: D. T. Holland et al., J. Chromatog. B 707, 105 (1998). Comprehensive description: M. U. Zubair et al., Anal. Profiles Drug Subs. 15,71-150 (1986). Review of dietary sources: D. M. Graham, Nutr. Rev. 36, 97-102 (1978); of clinical pharmacology: N. L. Benowitz, Ann. Rev. Med. 41, 277-288 (1990); of CNS effects: A. Nehlig et al., Brain Res. Rev. 17, 139-170 (1992); of therapeutic uses: J. Sawynok, Drugs 49, 37-50 (1996).
Properties: Hexagonal prisms by sublimation, mp 238°. Odorless with bitter taste. Sublimes 178°.Fast sublimation is obtained at 160-165° under 1 mm press. at 5 mm distance. d418 1.23. pH of 1% soln 6.9. Absorption spectrum: Hartley, J. Chem. Soc. 87, 1802 (1905). One gram dissolves in 46 ml water, 5.5 ml water at 80°, 1.5 ml boiling water, 66 ml alcohol, 22 ml alcohol at 60°, 50 ml acetone, 5.5 ml chloroform, 530 ml ether, 100 ml benzene, 22 ml boiling benzene. Freely sol in pyrrole; intetrahydrofuran contg about 4% water; also sol in ethyl acetate; slightly in petr ether. Soly in water is increased by alkali benzoates, cinnamates, citrates or salicylates. LD50 orally in mice, hamsters, rats, rabbits (mg/kg): 127, 230, 355, 246 (males); 137, 249, 247, 224 (females) (Palm).
Melting point: mp 238°
Density: d418 1.23
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in mice, hamsters, rats,rabbits (mg/kg): 127, 230, 355, 246 (males); 137, 249, 247, 224 (females) (Palm)

Derivative Type: Monohydrate
Properties: Felted needles, contg 8.5% H2O. Efflorescent in air; complete dehydration takes place at 80°.

Derivative Type: Mixture with citric acid
CAS Registry Number: 69-22-7
Additional Names: Caffeine citrate; citrated caffeine
Trademarks: Cafcit (Roxane)
LiteratureReferences: Clinical trial in treatment of apnea in premature neonates: P. B. Larsen et al., Acta Paediatr. 84, 360 (1995).
Properties: White, crystalline powder; acid reaction. Sol in about 4 parts warm water.

Therap-Cat: CNS stimulant; respiratory stimulant.
Therap-Cat-Vet: Cardiac and respiratory stimulant; diuretic.

Monograph Number: 8877
Title: Starch
Additional Names: AmylumLiterature References: (C6H10O5)n. Carbohydrate polymer stored by plants; analogous to storage of fats by animals. Occurs as discrete granules in the mature grain of corn, Zea mays Linné, Gramineae or of wheat, Triticum aestivum Linné, Gramineae or tubers of potato, Solanum tuberosum Linné, Solanaceae or rice, Oryza sativa Linné, Gramineae. Starches are mixtures of two polymers: amylose, alinear (14)--D-glucan and amylopectin, a branched D-glucan with mostly -D-(14) and approx 4% -D-(16) linkages. The starch in corn contains approx 27% amylose and 73% amylopectin, with these two polymers so associated in the crystal lattice that they are practically insol in cold water or alcohol. Refs: J. N. BeMiller, "Starch Amylose" in Industrial Gums, R. L. Whistler, Ed. (Academic...
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