Victorian era

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(Luci’s part)
THE VICTORIAN ERA
* Queen Victoria’s reign from June 1837 until her death on the 22nd of January 1901.
* The era is often characterized as a long period of peace, known as the Pax Britannica.
* Britain was at war every year during this time.
* During the early part of the era, the House of Commons was headed by the two parties, the Whigs and the Tories.
* Fromthe late 1850s onwards, the Whigs became the Liberals; the Tories became the Conservatives.
* The reign of Victoria is the longest in British history; it would be exceeded if the present monarch (Queen Elizabeth II) remains on the throne past 2015.

Periods and eras in English then British History
* Tudor Period (1485–1558)
* Elizabethan Era (1558–1603)
* StuartPeriod (1603–1714)
* Jacobean Era (1603–1625)
* Caroline Era (1625–1642)
* Georgian Era (1714–1830)
* British Regency (1811–1820)
* Victorian Era (1837–1901)
* Edwardian Era (1901–1910)
* Modern Britain (1945–present)

Population
The population of England had almost doubled from 16.8 millionin 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901 (In the Victorian Era).
The two main factors that affect a population are - fertility rates and mortality rates.
People had more money and could improve their standards (because of the industrial revolution).
Culture
* Gothic Revival architecture became increasingly significant in this period.
* The middle of the 19th century saw The Great Exhibition of1851, the first World's Fair, and showcased the greatest innovations of the century. At its centre was the Crystal Palace, a modular glass and iron structure - the first of its kind.
* The middle of the 19th century saw The Great Exhibition of 1851, the first World's Fair, and showcased the greatest innovations of the century. At its centre was the Crystal Palace, a modular glass and ironstructure - the first of its kind.
* The emergence of photography resulted in significant changes in Victorian art with Queen Victoria being the first British Monarch to be photographed.

Events
* 1832 Passage of the first Reform Act.
* 1837 Ascension of Queen Victoria to the throne.
* 1840 Queen Victoria marries Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield.
* 1850 Restoration of theRoman Catholic hierarchy in Britain.
* 1854 Crimean War: The United Kingdom declared war on Russia.
* 1861 Death of Prince Albert; Victoria’s son.
* 1867 The Constitution Act, 1867 passes and British North America becomes Dominion of Canada.
* 1875 Britain purchased Egypt's shares in the Suez Canal as the African nation was forced to raise money to pay off its debts.
* 1870 -1891 Under the Elementary Education Act 1870, basic State Education became free for every child under the age of 10.
* 1901 The death of Victoria saw the end of this era, and the ascension of her eldest son, Edward, began the Edwardian era, another time of great change.

Entertainment
Popular forms of entertainment varied by social class.
Literature (Charles Dickens), theatre and thearts.
Hypnotism, Medium-ship, conjuring ghost, etc.
Practicing natural sciences (like an amateur).

(Sofi’s part)
Technology and engineering
* The improvement of communication links.
* Canals, steam ships and the railways all allowed raw materials and people to be moved, rapidly facilitating trade and industry.
* Trains became another important factor ordering society, being thestandard by which clocks were set throughout Britain.
* Even later communication methods such as cinema, telegraph, telephones, cars and aircraft, would have an impact.
* Photography was realized in 1839 by Louis Daguerre in France and William Fox Talbot in the UK. By 1900, hand-held cameras were available.
* Sanitation reforms, driven by the Public Health Acts 1848 and 1869, were...
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