Voz Pasiva (1)
• Observa la diferencia entre estos dos grupos de oraciones: She ate an apple. → An apple was eaten (by her). Jill washed the dishes. → The dishes were washed(by Jill). They buy the newspaper on Sundays.→The newspaper is bought (by them) on Sundays. We feed the dog every day. → The dog is fed (by us) every day.
Las oraciones del primer grupo están envoz activa y las del segundo en pasiva. Al transformar una oración activa en otra pasiva el sujeto y la forma verbal cambian.
• Puede ser el complemento directo de la oración activa el que pasa a serel sujeto de la oración pasiva: She ate an apple. (an apple = complemento directo) → An apple was eaten (by her). (an apple = sujeto)
• La estructura verbal de las oraciones pasivas es esta:sujeto + verbo to be (en cualquier tiempo) + participio pasado del verbo principal She ate an apple. (ate = pasado simple de eat) → An apple was eaten (by her). (was eaten = pasado de to be + participio deeat)
ACTIVA I read a book every week. She is cooking dinner now. They bought too many vegetables. They were discussing the film. I have done all the work. We´ve been reading that book. She hadcleaned everything. They had been learning that. I will pay that. He´ll have finished the work.
PASIVA A book is read by me every week. Dinner is being cooked by her now. Too many vegetables werebought by them. The film was being discussed. All the work has been done by me. That book has been being read. (poco frecuente) Everything had been cleaned by her. That had been being learnt by them. (muypoco
That will be paid by me. The work will have been finished.
• El sujeto agente (la persona o cosa que realiza la acción) se puede indicar en la oración pasiva si se desea. Tieneque ir precedido de by: She ate an apple. (she = sujeto) → An apple was eaten (by her). (by her = sujeto agente)
Pero muchas veces no se menciona quien realiza la acción en la pasiva porque se...