War ans peace

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War, Peace and International Relations

War, Peace and International Relations is an introduction to the strategic history of the past two centuries, years which were shaped and reshaped by wars. The book shows that war is not only about warfare – the military conduct of war – but is crucial to the political, social and cultural behaviour of states. Written by leading strategist ProfessorColin Gray, this textbook provides students with a good grounding in the contribution of war to the development of the modern world, from the pre-industrial era to the post-industrial age of international terrorism and smart weapons. War, Peace and International Relations: • • • • is the first one-volume strategic history textbook on the market covers all the major wars of the past two centuries is upto date and comprehensive, including chapters on irregular warfare and terrorism includes summary points, boxed sections, student questions and further reading.

Colin S. Gray is Professor of International Politics and Strategic Studies at the University of Reading, UK and a professional strategic theorist and defence analyst. His twenty-one books include Modern Strategy (1999) and AnotherBloody Century (2005).

War, Peace and International Relations
An Introduction to Strategic History

Colin S. Gray

First published 2007 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business
This editionpublished in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2007. “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.”

© 2007 Colin S. Gray All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented,including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Gray, Colin S. War, peace and international relations : an introduction to strategichistory / Colin S. Gray p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978–0–415–38638–8 (hardback : alk. paper) – ISBN 978–0–415–38639–5 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. War. 2. Military policy. 3. Strategy. 4. International relations. 5. Military history, Modern–19th century. 6. Military history, Modern–20th century. I. Title U21.2.G673 2007 355.0209–dc22 2006034566
ISBN 0-203-08899-9 Master e-book ISBNISBN 10: 0–415–38638–1 (hbk) ISBN 10: 0–415–38639–X (pbk) ISBN 10: 0–203–08899–9 (ebk) ISBN 13: 978–0–415–38638–8 (hbk) ISBN 13: 978–0–415–38639–5 (pbk) ISBN 13: 978–0–203–08899–9 (ebk)

To the memory of John Erickson, an inspiring teacher, a wise mentor and a good friend


List of maps List of boxes and tables Preface

xi xii xiii

Introduction: strategic history 1 Themesand contexts of strategic history Introduction: a binding framework 4 Themes 5 Contexts 9 Conclusion 13 2 Carl von Clausewitz and the theory of war Introduction: theory for all seasons 15 Strategic ideas and strategic behaviour 16 Jomini and Clausewitz 19 Conclusion 27 3 From limited war to national war: the French Revolution and the Napoleonic way of war Introduction: two transformations 31Limited war and great war 33 The Revolution and its warfare 37 Napoleon’s art of war 39 Problems with the Napoleonic way of war and warfare 44 Political and strategic failure 46 Conclusion 48 4 The nineteenth century, I: a strategic view Introduction: the reach of strategic history 51 A violent century 52

1 4




viii Contents

Implications of the Industrial Revolution: the...
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