The Warsaw Pact (1955–1991) was the Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance, which was a mutual defense treaty ofeight communist states in Eastern Europe. It was established at the USSR’s initiative and realized on 14 May 1955, in Warsaw, as the Soviet Bloc’s military response to West Germany’s May1955 integration to the NATO Pact, per the Paris Pacts of 1954.
The Soviet Union dominated the alliance. The Soviet Union kept military personnel in the other countries of the alliance and kept them runningsocialist governments. It was the first step in an attempt to strengthen the Soviet Union's hold on its satellite countries
The strategy of the Warsaw Pact was dominated by the desire to prevent therecurrence of an invasion of Russian soil as had occurred under Napoleon in 1812 and Hitler in 1941-44. On 14 May 1955, the USSR established the Warsaw Pact in response to the integration of the FederalRepublic of Germany into NATO in October 1954 .
The eight member countries of the Warsaw Pact pledged the mutual defense of any member who would be attacked; relations among the treaty signatorieswere based upon mutual non-intervention in the internal affairs of the member countries, respect for national sovereignty, and political independence.
Nevertheless, for 36 years, NATO and the WarsawTreaty never directly waged war against each other in Europe; but the United States and the Soviet Union implemented strategic policies aiming at the containment of each other in Europe. Beginning atthe Cold War’s conclusion, in late 1989, popular civil and political public discontent forced the Communist governments of the Warsaw Treaty countries from power independent national politics madefeasible with the perestroika- and glasnost-induced institutional collapse of Communist government in the USSR
On 1 July 1991, in Prague, the Czechoslovak President Václav Havel formally ended the...