We live in a world that besides having states nowadays has other members that, further representing interest of diverse groups of people, plays a major role in the decision making areas connected to states, in which we encounter NGO’s, transnational companies, international NGO’s and even intergovernmental groups. They allestablish relations according to their different needs and interests, and the study of this through the time is called International Relations.
As we know, International Relations are centered in the relations between states, and in the relations between states and some other institutions that are part of the international system; as said by Henderson “International Relations is the study of who getswhat, when and how in matters external to states or in matters crossing national boundary lines, in which the who are primarily states or the countries of the world, the what are the goals of those actors and the how refers to the instruments that actors use to achieve those goals.”
So, when we talk about International Relations, geography is a field of study that, beyond defining theterritorial limits between nations, is very important at the moment of determining the kind of exchange agreements, integration agreements, actions toward others and the relations themselves between nations. Thus, we can affirm that in a percentage, the relation between International Relations and geography is one of dependence, reason why the International relation that a specific country has with anotherone depends in a certain degree on the geographical characteristics of both of them, in which we not only have the physical geography (study of the physical environment: natural risks, climate, ecology, hydrology, etc. ) but we also have the human geography (the study of societies and its territories: population, culture, social, etc. )
Geographical characteristics, in most of the cases, arethe main cause of conflict between nations and also are one of the main goals that a country has at the moment of entering in such. This can be thanks to the favorable or unfavorable location of the country, the presence or lack of resources that a country has, the climate conditions, the presence of intergovernmental groups and so many others than encourage a country to fight for certainterritories. As an example in this point we have the England efforts for coming over strategic places of the viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata that were seen since the starting of the 19th century and, which after declarations from the Birmingham University in 1975 to the foreign office of England that assured the existence of four times or even more the amount of available petroleum than the one available inthe Northern Sea and the Atlantic watershed of the United States, ended in the fight over the Malvinas Islands, Islands with access to the Antarctic and to the Magallan’s strait, all this attractive characteristics for any country. This fight ended with England as the winner and the Malvinas Islands as its protectorate; and another point, that is worth to notice and highlight, is the fact thatdespite the Monroe Doctrine adopted by the United States, this country did nothing to support Argentina.
We can also see that territory since the beginning of times, starting with the different empires, has been the main reason of fights in the history of International Relations. If we take a country like Colombia we can find for example that the different conflicts of the country with neighboringcountries have always been a subject of concern. In the 90’s there was a conflict with Venezuela about the marine frontier line, which Colombia said must include the zone of Los Monjes. The same conflict is happening but this time with a different country, Nicaragua, over the San Andres and Providence Islands.
The frontier zones have certain characteristics that can bring with them both...