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It comprises repeated acts over time that involves a real or perceived imbalance of power with the more powerful individual or group abusing those who are less powerful. The victim ofbullying is sometimes referred to as a target.

Bullying consists of three basic types of abuse emotional, verbal and physical. It typically involves subtle methods of coercion such as psychologicalmanipulation.

Bullying can occur in any context in which human beings interact with each other. This includes school, church, the workplace, home and neighborhoods. It is even a common push factorin migration. Bullying can exist between social groups, social classes and even between countries.

Bullying is characterized by an individual behaving in a certain way to gain power over anotherperson.

Effects of bullying on victims.
Victims of bullying can suffer from long term emotional and behavioral problems. Bullying can cause:

• loneliness

• depression,


• lead to low self-esteem ,and

• Increased susceptibility to illness.


There is a strong link between bullying and suicide. Bullying leads to several suicides every year.It is estimated that between 15 and 25 children commit suicide every year, because they are being bullied.

Characteristics of bullies.

• Research indicates that adults who bully havepersonalities that are authoritarian, combined with a strong need to control or dominate.

• Further studies have shown that envy and resentment may be motives for bullying.

• Researchers haveidentified other risk factors such as depression and personality disorders.

• use of force, addiction to aggressive behaviors, mistaking others' actions as hostile, concern with preserving selfimage, and engaging in obsessive or rigid actions.

Bullies may bully because they themselves have been the victim of bullying.

Some Types of bullying.

• School bullying.

Bullying in...
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