WHY DID THE TSAR NICHOLAS II FALL FROM POWER IN FEBRUARY 1917?
Tsar Nicholas II ruled Russia from 1894, when Alexander III his father died, until February 1917, when the Tsar abdicated of his charge. As a consequence the monarchy line in Russia came to an end and Nicholas II was the last Tsar.
For century’s autocratic government and oppression by the Royal family ruled Russia, and the mainand almost only authority was the Tsar. Nicholas II kept all of his ancestors’ reforms, but it was during his administration that Russia suffered the most drastic social, political, and military changes. Simultaneously, and most important, First World War lead Russia into a time for revolutions and the search for a new model of government that ended centuries of autocracy. Nicholas II abdicationresulted from both distant and short-term influencing factors.
Among the distant causes are the emancipation of the serfs by Tsar Alexander III in 1861, the DUMA, and bloody Sunday. The emancipation of the serfs had serious consequences among workers and peasants in their land. These consequences were taking place in the earliest 20’s during Nicholas II administration. The peasants stillresent paying redemption to the actual government. Russia was under severe economic difficulties and the majority of poor peasants were forced to sell their land and choose between move to work in the cities or stay in the countryside as laborers.
At the end of 1905 the demand for a Parliament that could represent both nobility and workers was at its maximum level. The Tsar responded creating aparliament called the DUMA. Those that participated in the DUMA were elected by the people and had both nobles and workers. Citizens hoped that this parliament would be their voice and their vote and it would look after the rights of the peasants and the ordinary people. Instead, the DUMA was only a facade for the Tsar to maintain control over Russian issues given that the Dumas could not passlaws, appoint ministers, or control finances in areas such as defense. The first peaceful protest of workers and peasants was just a call of hope to the Tsar asking for solutions to the their problems and their living conditions. They believed the Tsar would attempt to solve their problems, but instead this rebellion ended as massacre by the Army in which approximately two thousand children, oldpeople, and workers were killed. It is remembered as Bloody Sunday and this mass execution left deep scarves in people’s way of thinking. At this time, ordinary Russians begun to wonder about new political ideas and explore different models of government highly influenced by other models in neighboring countries. People in Russia were tired of the regime and hoping for a future of democracy.
Asthe years passed by, conditions for a revolution increased. The twentieth century begun with development opportunities for industrial matters, and a better life for the Russian people. During this period factories could develop new technology, new conditions in working and living, and a new organization to the state. It was the time where Russia had an industrial boom, and the chance to become oneof the most important world’s producers of coal, pig iron and steel. Unfortunately, even though Russia had this opportunity the autocracy and oppression from the tsarist regime block it away from the people.
By 1912 the industrial revolution start to make changes in people’s lives. Factories demand for more workers, more working hours, and less wages. It could be said that a low class Russianfamily could easily pass from a decent life in the countryside to degrading conditions in the cities. An important strike took place in Siberia were workers protested about their working conditions. The Tsar’s response was to send troops and give rise to a massacre in which 170 workers were killed and 373 wounded. So here we are, in the early 1920’s when a future important and demanding class,...
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