1.- Language in use
A sample of language: KEEP OFF THE GRASS
Words combine to form a grammatical unit called a sentence, and a sentence furthermore of an imperative as distinct from a declarative or interrogative kind consisting of two main constituents.
Examining the properties of this sample of grammatical analysis; languages are traditionally recorded for us in analytic terms:Grammars display the range of possible structural combinations in sentences, and dictionaries provide us with the meanings of words.
These can represent the encoded resources of form and meaning that speakers of a particular language know and draw upon intuitively when they use it.
Speakers experience of language, analyses it into formal constituents and recognize words they treat it as a text.Text:
A text can be defined as an actual use of language, as distinct from a sentence which is an abstract unit of linguistic analysis, and has been produced for a communicative purpose.
a text as a purposeful use of language without necessarily being able to interpret just what is meant by it. In an unknown language we need to know the language a text is in to be able to interpret, it wecould still not understand what is meant by its use in a particular text.
We, establish reference by relating the text to the context in which it (SENTENCE) is located, to the particular patch where the notice is placed.
The range of reference is not specified in the language itself. We make assumptions about what it is on the basis of what we know about public notices of this kind and howthey are conventionally meant to be understood.
Many times we need to relate the text to the actual situational context in which we find it, and also to the abstract cultural context of what we know to be conventional.
Relating text to context where they are located and infer not only what refers to, also what its purpose is and make sense.
by relating the language to the immediateperceptual context where they are located, and to the conceptual context of our knowledge of how such texts are designed to function.
We cannot make sense out of them simply by focusing on the language itself.
In simple texts like notices, establishing the language-context connections is usually a fairly straightforward matter. In some texts to make connections is not easy.
Text and discourseNot all texts are so simple in form or so straightforward in function and not all, extend beyond the sentence, a great many of them do: newspaper articles, interviews, reports, poems, etc.
Some ones have obviously utility function and others meant to serve a range of different social purposes: to give information, express a point of view, shape opinion, provide entertainment, and so on.These functions are frequently combined in complex ways and are designed to promote the attractions it describes.
All texts are
. We identify a stretch of language as a text when we recognize this intention, and there are times when the intention is made explicit as when a text is labelled as a notice, or instructions, or report or proclamation.
recognizing a text is not the same asrealizing its meaning.
You may not know what is being referred to in a particular text, or in part of a text;
In simple texts, like public notices, interpretation, more complex
prove to be highly problematic.
People produce texts to get a message across, to express ideas and beliefs, to explain something, to get other people to do certain things or to think in a certain way,
have to make meaning out of the text to make
it a communicative reality. In
do not contain meaning,
but are used to mediate it across discourses.
what the text means to the reader will
generally match up with what the producer of the text meant by it.
texts will serve to mediate some convergence between discourses, or otherwise no communication would take place at...
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