AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Conrado Moreno Figueredo (1)
Mario Arrastía Ávila (2)
(1) Centro de Estudio de Tecnologías Energéticas Renovables (CETER-CUJAE), Cuba
(2) CUBAENERGIA, Cuba
Key words: energy education program, capacity building.
Several Cuban universities are joined around the virtual university namedTechnical University for Renewable Energy (UTER). This university was founded in 1995 with the purpose to support the formation of human resources in the energy field, specifically in the renewable energy branch. UTER is considered as the Cuban renewable energy network by the Ministry of Higher Education. All of these universities offer post graduated courses, master courses and PhD programs focusedto the energy field with special emphasis in renewable energy. As a result of this initiative several master programs are running in different universities belonging to UTER. Those programs are not well known in the region. The purpose of this paper is to present details of those programs in order to promote the capabilities of Cuba for implementing actions focused to the formation of masters inLatin American and Caribbean countries. Several experiences have resulted from the application of energy master courses in Cuba, Venezuela and other countries which have introduced the mentioned master programs. One of the most important and interesting courses comprised in all applied programs is the wind energy course. Cuban professors and researchers with experience in the wind energy field areentrusted with giving those wind energy courses.
Cuban conditions for supporting the education and the use of renewable energies in Cuba
The development and the education on renewable energy sources depends on, first of all, of local conditions of the country and also requires, among others factors the existence of an efficient educational system. In the case of Cuba, its geographic locationnear the tropic of Cancer, ranges between 19° 49¢ 38” (Punta Inglés, Granma Province) and the 23° 17¢ 09” North latitude (Cayo Cruz del Padre, Matanzas Province), causes the Cuban territory to receive such high levels of solar radiation per square meter that an average amount of 19 MJ/m2 daily are provided by such radiation levels, which represents a bit less than half a kilogram equivalent ofpetroleum. If all this solar energy could be used, in every square meter of the Cuban national territory it could be possible to generate a bit more than 5 kWh, an almost constant amount during the whole year all over the country, so since Cuba is a narrow island the latitude range is only a bit more than 3 degrees. Cuba is a Third World country without great natural resources, which is under a rigidblockade from the United States government. Despite of this, we can exhibit an Educational System, which is internationally recognized by its efficiency. According to United Nations Organization for Education Science and Culture (UNESCO) Quality Laboratory, Cuba’s elementary results are twice of the rest of the Latin American countries. The most remarkable feature of the Cuban education is itshumanist and participatory character.
On the other hand, education in Cuba is free of charge for every citizen in all levels including university and postgraduate education. The right to study is guaranteed and classrooms have never closed doors despite the sharp economic crisis the country has faced in the last ten years. Our educational system is increasingly upgrading aimed to improve and updatesyllabuses so that these can respond to the country’s needs, preserve our cultural identity and take into account the obvious need of energy and environmental education looking forward to sustainable development. The moments millions of students go to their schools all over the country on the first day of each school year, has become a tradition and “national celebration”. Thousands of children...