Páginas: 5 (1225 palabras) Publicado: 5 de marzo de 2013
The colony

The colonial government.

Institutions and individuals who governed New Spain during the colonial period were the following, in order of importance:
King. Throughout the entire colonial history the king of Spain was the supreme authority. At the time of the conquest of Mexico the monarchs who were put in charge of the government effectively was the Emperor Carlos I of Spain and Vof Germany. His policy was essentially absolutist, ie concentrating absolute power in the crown, so that the real will not have legal limits and was the supreme law. The kings ruled then to Mexico from Spain, based on the reports received, rarely intervening personally and that delegated authority in institutions acting on their behalf. Never a king of Spain visited Mexico or any other Spanishcolonies in Latin

The Royal and Supreme Council of the Indies. It was the highest authority subordinate category created by the king to rule the colonies in America, with a group of ministers appointed by him. The functions of the Council of the Indies covering all matters, including those relating to the administrative and financial aspects of the church in the colonies. Decisions, decisions,laws and resolutions of the Board representing the most direct real will, and as the king, the Council ruled from Spain, where he had his seat. The Council's authority was therefore enormous and understood, to say in today's terms, corresponding to the legislative, executive and judicial.

The Audience. During the conquest and consolidation was Hernán Cortés who ruled in New Spain, but soon theking deprived him of his authority to establish a higher government body called the Audience of Mexico. This organ, such as the Council of the Indies, was composed of several magistrates called judges, serving one of them as president of the Audience. In general, the functions of this body were a mixture of powers, because not only ruled politically and administratively, but also was a High Court incivil and criminal matters.

In New Spain was hearing before the creation of the post of viceroy, and at that time was the highest authority in the colony, but, since then, his power did not include military matters, since these correspond to the Captain General (exercised in first by Hernan Cortes) and matters relating to finances and taxes, which were cared for by officials called royalofficials. The government of the first hearing was disastrous for the terrible abuses committed by the judges, to the extent that they nearly cause rebellion. The second hearing, however, was exemplary; she was part of Don Vasco de Quiroga who later became bishop of Michoacán and a great benefactor of the Indians of that region.

In addition to the Audience of Mexico was called there the audience ofNew Galicia, namely that of Jalisco. Resided in the city of Guadalajara and was subordinated to the audiences of Mexico. Both were maintained throughout colonial history.

The viceroy and other officials. The mismanagement and excesses of the first hearing, among other factors, showed the need for an official resident in Mexico to represent the colony in the person of the monarch. The titlegiven to this official was the viceroy; word that precisely means is that instead of the king. The powers and authority of the viceroy were very wide. It was deposited all governmental and administrative action of the colony which had been granted to the Court and it was in this regard as a body that first helped the viceroy, since this was the incumbent president of the audience. Only in cases wheremissing the Viceroy through death or other circumstances, the Court provisionally regained his power as the new viceroy took the reins of government. The power of the High Court as a court of justice remains intact, because in those cases the Viceroy had no powers. The Viceroy also held the position of commander in chief and was the supreme commander in military affairs. In a word, the viceroy...
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