1- While anesthetized, patients sometimes vomit. Given the anesthetic eliminates swallowing reflex why it is dangerous for an anesthetized patient to vomit .
Because when a anesthetized patient vomit can easily have a bronco-aspiration that means that the patient will choke and also in some cases die.
2-Achlorhydria is a condition in which the stomach stops producing hydrochloric acid andother secretions. What effect would achlorhydria have on the digestive process? On red blood count?
The Achlohydria is used to break down foods in the digestive system. On red blood count . Without Achlohyndria the body cannot get the vitamin b12 that is used to make new red blood cells
3- Victor Worrys tudent experienced the pain of a duodenal ulcer during final examination week. Explain whathabits caused the ulcer and recommend possible remedies.
The most common causes for duodenal ulcer or also called peptic ulcer are stress and also if the patients is eating a lot of spicy food may cause the ulcer, my recommended possible remedies are to tell the patient to take bismuto to help destroy bacteries take misoprosol, don’t drink alcohol don’t smoke and try to reduce your stress4-Gallstones sometimes obstruct the common bile duct. What are the consequences of such a blockage?
It cant cause Acute cholecystitis that is inflammation of the gallbladder , Cholangitis infection od the bile , Cholecystitis, chronic swelling or inflammation of the gallbladder that persist Choledocholithiasis the presence of at least one gallstone in the common bile duct. , Pancreatitis inflammation ofthe pancreas
5- A patient has a spinal cord injury at level L2. How does this injury affect the patient’s ability to defecate? What component of the defecation response are still present, and which are lost?
In a injury at level L2 our patient wont be able to fell from the hips to the toe probably would lost control in the hability to defecate the body will do it but he wont be able tocontrol.
6- The bacterium Vibrio cholerae produces cholera toxin, which activates a chloride channel in the intestinal epithelium. In contrast, mutations that inactivate the same channel cause cystic fibrosis. Explain how increased chloride channel activity causes severe diarrhea, whereas decreased activity causes the intestinal symptoms of cystic fibrosis.
The chloride channel is a protein found inplasma membrane of cells it regulates the flow od chloride ions in or out of the cell whrn there is a lot of activity the large intestine may not absorb the excess water of the wastes production a severe diarrhea, and when in decreased the wasted may be to solid causing and instestinal block
7-Discuss why the most effective oral rehydration therapy is water containing sodium and glucose insteadof water alone or water with fructose.
Because when the excretory system is making its process, it uses salts and glucose to make the concentrations of the urine higher, and its process requires salts and glucose.
8-Harry is doing yard work one hot summer day and refuses to drink anything until he is finished. He then drinks glass after glass of plain water. Assuming that he drinks enough waterto replace all the water he lost as sweat, how does this much water affect urine concentration and volume? Explain the mechanisms involved.
Maybe his urine will be more concentrated and more dense because the kidneys need water to make the process of the excretory system better, so when Harry didn’t drink water, his kidneys needed the water, so the urine that harry produced maybe was instead of“white” it would be “yellow” because of the concentrations of solutes it’s higher.
9-Research has shown that mammals with kidneys having relatively thicker medullas can produce more concentrated urine than humans. Explain why this is so.
I think is like that because the mammals don’t drink as much water as we do maybe they eat more plants or more meat, but...
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