Bullying is a form of aggressive behavior manifested by the use of force or coercion to affect others, particularly when the behavior is habitual and involves an imbalanceof power. It can include verbal harassment, physical assault or coercion and may be directed repeatedly towards particular victims, perhaps on grounds of race, religion,gender, sexuality, or ability. The "imbalance of power" may be social power and/or physical power. The victim of bullying is sometimes referred to as a "target".Bullying consists of three basic types of abuse – emotional, verbal, and physical. It typically involves subtle methods of coercion such as intimidation. Bullying can bedefined in many different ways. The UK currently has no legal definition of bullying, while some U.S. states have laws against it.
Bullying ranges from simple one-on-onebullying to more complex bullying in which the bully may have one or more 'lieutenants' who may seem to be willing to assist the primary bully in his or her bullyingactivities. Bullying in school and the workplace is also referred to as peer abuse. Robert W. Fuller has analyzed bullying in the context of rankism.
Bullying can occur in anycontext in which human beings interact with each other. This includes school, church, family, the workplace, home, and neighborhoods. It is even a common push factor inmigration. Bullying can exist between social groups, social classes, and even between countries (see jingoism). In fact, on an international scale, perceived or realimbalances of power between nations, in both economic systems and in treaty systems, are often cited as some of the primary causes of both World War I and World War II.
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