Salud Mental 2012;35:447-457
Consumo de drogas en población general mexicana
El consumo de drogas en México: Resultados
de la Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones, 2011
Jorge Villatoro,1 Ma. Elena Medina-Mora,2 Clara Fleiz Bautista,3 Midiam Moreno López,3
Natania Oliva Robles,3 Marycarmen Bustos Gamiño,3 Diana Fregoso Ito,3
María de Lourdes Gutiérrez López,3 Nancy Amador Buenabad3
In the international context, Mexico is a country with low drug use
level, in turn, it shows an increase when considering the most recent
epidemiologic trends. In order to maintain an updated analysis of
drug use in general population and to identify the most at risk groups,
the National Survey of Addictions (ENA) was held in 2011.
The aim of thestudy was to determine the lifetime prevalence for any
drug and any illegal drug use at a national and regional level, in
population aged 12 to 65 years. Also, to acknowledge drug consumption trends since 2002 in Mexico.
Material and methods
ENA 2011 survey is a randomized, multistage probabilistic study. It
is representative at a national level and also for eight regions of the
country,including rural and urban population. The sample was 3 849
adolescents and 12 400 adults who answered a computerized version of a standardized questionnaire containing sections of tobacco,
alcohol, medical drugs (opiates, tranquilizers, sedatives, amphetamines) and illegal drugs (marijuana, cocaine, crack, hallucinogens,
inhalants, heroin and methamphetamines). All participants read and
signed aninformed consent. Emphasis was made on the voluntary
and confidential use of the information.
The national lifetime prevalence of any drug grew between 2002 and
2011, increasing significantly from 5.0% to 7.8%, while consumption
of any illegal drugs increased from 4.1% to 7.2%. By sex, in men, any
drug use increased from 8.6% to 13%. Illegal drugs increased from
8.0% to 12.5%. Inwomen, use of any drug increased from 2.1% to
3.0% and use of any illegal drug increased from 1.0% to 2.3%. Marijuana is the first drug of choice (6.5%) followed by cocaine (3.6%).
Considering regions, any drug consumption grew significantly in the
Western (5.5% to 10.3%), Northeast (5.5% to 10.3%), North Central (7.5% to 9.2%) and South Central (4.2% to 7.5%). As for illegal
drugs, there isalso a statistically significant increase in these regions,
however, growth was proportionally bigger in South Central region,
going from 3.5% to 6.8%.
Results from this study indicate a growth in the consumption of illegal
drugs from 2002 to 2011, especially in marijuana. It also shows that
men from 18 to 34 years are the most affected by this consumption,
whileincreases in adolescent men have been low. Moreover, the study
shows that those who have received some type of prevention, showed
a smaller consumption prevalence, indicating that further work is needed in this area with young people to consolidate activities of health
promotion and drug use prevention, working with infant population is
needed, including a systematic evaluation of the actionsmentioned
above. In the international context, data from this study confirms that
Mexico continues reporting low levels of drug consumption.
Key words: Survey, drug consumption, adolescents, adults, México.
En el contexto internacional, México es uno de los países con bajo nivel
de consumo de drogas, pero que, a su vez, reporta un incremento si se
consideran lastendencias epidemiológicas más recientes. Con la finalidad de mantener un diagnóstico actualizado del consumo de drogas
en la población general y de identificar los grupos en mayor riesgo, se
llevó a cabo la Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones 2011 (ENA).
Conocer la prevalencia alguna vez en la vida de uso de cualquier
droga y de cualquier droga ilegal a nivel nacional y regional en
Leer documento completo
Regístrate para leer el documento completo.