EARLY INVADERS & THE CELTS, PICTS, SCOTS
The Celtic culture had expanded over a wide range of regions, whether by diffusion or migration: to the British Isles (Insular Celts), the Iberian Peninsula (Celtiberians, Celtici and Gallaeci), much of Central Europe, (Gauls) and following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in 279 BC as far east as central Anatolia (Galatians).
The Picts lived tothe north of the Forth and Clyde rivers
The Scots historically they emerged from an amalgamation of the Celtic Picts (east) and Gaels (west), incorporating neighbouring Britons to the south as well as invading Germanic peoples such as the Anglo-Saxons and the Norse.
The nations that nowadays are in what was Celtic, Pict and scot region are: Scotland, England, Wales, Ireland. The Celts occupiedfor a while region like Spain, France, Italy, Germany and Poland (Check the map for comparisons)
*Gulfs and bays, serve as ports.
*Fields of good coking coal are found at the foot of the mountains, and close by, deposits of low-grade iron ore (mineral) . High-grade iron is imported.
*The seas around Great Britain are rich in fish (especially the North Sea).
80 AD The Roman, Julius Agricola,invades "Albion" or "Caledonia" which are the ancient names for Scotland
400BC Celts had settled in many European countries
43 Emperor Claudius subdues the Celts in Britain
45 Vercingetorix the leader of the Celtic Tribes is executed.
60 Boudicca fails the rebellion against Rome.
476 The Roman Empire collapses.
Julius Agricola, Roman who firstly invaded Scotland.
Orgetorix, an old Celticchieftain.
Boudicca, who led the rebellious Iceni against Roman rule in AD 61.
Vercengetorix, chieftain who managed to unite the Gauls.
Hecataeus of Miletus: First recorded who used the word Celts (Κελτοί).
Julius Caesar, who leaded the Gallic Wars against the Celts.
In the early years of Celtic, civilizations they were divided in “tuath” translated as tribe. The tuath was ruled by achieftain, the ”Ri-tuath” translated as King of the tribe. The inner circle, geil fine or inner family, consisted of the ceann fine or head of the family and four members. The geil fine was enclosed by other three circles, representing three groups of four members: the deirbh fine or true family, air fine or after family and the inn family or end family.
Celtic man was warlike, brave and wild, but Celticmen were not in training or service as warriors or chieftains at all but farmers, fishermen, builders, and superb craftsmen in metal, wood and stone.
Children were actually raised by foster parents. The foster father was often the brother of the birth-mother.
Druid clothing was the same as the ordinary persons clothing and cloaks or mantles would have been fashioned by a broach. Clothes weremade of wool, linen and silk if you were rich.
The Celts lived in huts of arched timber with walls of wicker and roofs of thatch.
Artwork, warfare, farming
Chariots led by horses used in battle
The Celts had one major advantage - they had discovered Iron.
Firstly, the kingship, which was seen as something divine.
Firstly, the law was passed down orally, the law was known as Fénechas, Thelaws were rather civil rather than criminal, and they compensate the harm done, regulation of property, inheritance and other contracts.
There was a commander-in-chief, conducted by an assembly: Armed Council, that managed strategies.
Warfare was used to exert political control and also to harass rivals, for economical advantage or to conquer territory.
Lugh and Dagda, while goddesses wereassociated with natural features, particularly rivers (such as Boann, goddess of the River Boyne).
There were two basic forms of the Celtic language: one version (now known as Q-Celtic, Goidelic, or Irish Gaelic) spoken in Ireland and the Isle of Man; and another version (known as P-Celtic, Brythonic or "Gaulish").
The Druids were also in charge of supervising the education, which was very important...
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