El capital de marx

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UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS General Certificate of Education Advanced Subsidiary Level and Advanced Level

GEOGRAPHY Paper 1 Core Geography SPECIMEN PAPER Additional Materials: Answer Booklet/Paper

For Examination from 2010 3 hours

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST If you have been given an Answer Booklet, follow the instructions on the front cover of theBooklet. Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in. Write in dark blue or black pen. You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working. Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid. Section A Answer five questions. Section B Answer one question. Section C Answer one question. Sketch maps and diagrams should be drawnwhenever they serve to illustrate an answer. All the figures referred to in the questions are contained in the Insert. At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together. The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

This document consists of 5 printed pages, 1 blank page and 1 Insert. [Turn over

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2 Section A Answerfive questions in this section. All questions carry 10 marks. Hydrology and fluvial geomorphology 1 Fig. 1 shows some features associated with the valley of a river channel. (a) (i) Name and briefly describe the feature marked as A. (ii) Name and briefly describe the feature marked as B. (b) Explain the development of this river channel and one of the landforms shown on Fig. 1. Atmosphere andweather 2 Fig. 2 shows the mean (average) temperatures (°C) in July. (a) Describe two differences in the pattern of the isotherms between the northern and southern hemispheres shown in Fig. 2. [4] (b) Describe and explain the differences between the temperatures of land masses and sea areas. [6] Rocks and weathering 3 Fig. 3 shows a classification of mass movements according to water content andvelocity. (a) Give the water content and range of velocities that are associated with: (i) debris flows; (ii) rock falls. (b) Describe the nature of solifluction and explain under what conditions it occurs. (c) Describe soil creep and explain why it occurs at such low velocities. [2] [4] [4] [2] [2] [6]

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3 Population 4 Fig. 4 shows age/sex pyramids forChina, an LEDC in Asia, in 1990 and predicted for 2040. (a) Identify two main features of the age/sex pyramid in Fig. 4A. [2]

(b) Draw a simple labelled diagram to show the possible shape of China’s age/sex pyramid in 2015. [3] (c) Explain the predicted increase by the year 2040 in the percentage of China’s population aged over 40 years. [5] Migration / Settlement dynamics 5 Fig. 5 shows amodel of how migration within a country may occur in steps. (a) Identify one similarity and one difference between movements A and C on Fig. 5. (b) Outline two reasons why migrants may move in steps. [2] [3]

(c) Using examples, explain why many migrants who move to a capital city later settle elsewhere (as seen in movements D, E and F on Fig. 5). [5] Settlement dynamics 6 Figs 6A and 6B show low,middle and high income areas of the cities of São Paulo, Brazil (an LEDC) and Chicago, USA (an MEDC). (a) Outline the differences in the distribution of low income areas in the two cities. [4]

(b) Suggest reasons for the location of high income areas in cities such as São Paulo and Chicago. [6]

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4 Section B: The Physical Core Answer one questionfrom this section. All questions carry 25 marks. Hydrology and fluvial geomorphology 7 (a) (i) Define the terms interception and stemflow. (ii) What is meant by the term water balance in a drainage basin? [4] [3]

(b) Using simple sketch hydrographs, explain how a change in land use in a drainage basin from woodland to urbanisation may affect river discharge. [8] (c) How can the abstraction...
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