However, there are contradictions inherent in my position. I am white Anglo-Saxon Protestant. I have a reality high income, a good education, and a good job. Perhaps because I am a beneficiary of this series of hierarchical relationships, much of my early organizational culture research, and not a few of my present ideas, have affinities with the integration perspective. I also appreciate thefragmentation perspectives’s acknowledgment of the multiples identities that people bring to and enact in their work. I see organizational life as full of irresolvable complexities, confusion and contact flux, and I see most organizational theory (including my own) as offering clear and rational explanations of phenomena which lack these characteristics, imposing unity on deference, and offeringcross-sectional views that imply and stability that seldom exist s and never persist perhaps. Because I live with all of these contradictions, i have published within, and vacillated among, all three of the theoretical viewpoints described in this book.
My belief that social science research cannot be value-natural has implications for my writing style.
This text is also limited by what I havechosen to include and exclude. Within the domain of organizational culture research, the book focuses on representative or particularly on fine studies, rather than attempting to include everything. It primarily draws on organizational culture research published in the United States, although some published work from other countries is included. This book covers research conducted in the last fiftyyears (primarily in the last decade) in organizations located in Western, industrialized countries.
This is not a book written primarily for practioners. Hopefully some will be interested, although this book does not address some important issues.
SEEING CULTURES FROM DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW
It does not explore links to noncultural organizational research or to related treatments ofhomogeneity. Difference. And ambiguity in other disciplines, such as literally criticism, philosophy, and history.
The sequence of chapters in this book alternates between theoretical abstraction and the empirical specificity of the descriptions of OZCO.
Chapter 2 introduces the OZCO case, describing the firm, the sampling procedure the methodology and the style and format which the case material ispresented.
Chapter 3 offers an integration view of OZCO, using quotations form cultural members.
Chapter 5 is a return to OZCO, viewed this time with a Differentional perspective that acknowledges sub cultural inequalities and explores the dynamics of power and conflict.
Chapter 7 offers a Fragmentation view of OZCO, again analyzing the results using the matrix framework. Chapter 8 offerstheoretical exploration of the fragmentation perspective, drawing on a wide range of organizational research, as well as postmodern and feminist theories.
Chapter 9 offers a meta-theoretical overview that encompasses all three of these viewpoints, with a focus on cultural change. Chapter 10 deconstructs the three-perspective framework, exporting the weaknesses and omissions inherent in this way ofcaving up the cultural domain.
OZCA: Gathering the Data
My objective is to show that cultural members can and do see the OZCO culture in terms that are content with all three perspectives.
OZCO is one of the Fortune 500 companies. It has over 80,000 employees worldwide, although this study focuses primarily on employees who work in the company’s headquarters in California.
Meyerson and conducted interviews separately and together. Usually, only a single OZCO employee was interview, but in the case of friends, sometimes two or three joined in a group discussion. These interviews were informal and open-ended. We encouraged people to talk about their work.
They were willing to generate about the company as a whole, or some part of it the description below...
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