English

Páginas: 5 (1119 palabras) Publicado: 2 de abril de 2011
GRAMMAR BOOK 27

1. WILL / WON’T / WOULDN’T EXPRESSING WILLINGNESS AND REFUSAL

2. PRESENT PARTICIPLE VS GERUND AS NOUN MODIFIER

3. PRESENT PARTICIPLE EXPRESSING MANNER

4. ADVERB CLAUSE OF MANNER WITH AS

5. BE + TO VERB = EXPRESSING NECESSITY / OBLIGATION AND FUTURE

“BE TO” meaning “be required to”, “be supposed to” or “be scheduled to”. It’s used to express necessity /obligation or future time.

|S |AM / IS / ARE / |TO VERB |C |
| |WAS / WERE | | |

Ex.
- XXXX

6. EMBEDDED QUESTION (NOUN CLAUSE)

Both yes – no andquestion-word questions can be set into, or embedded in, other sentences. They become noun clauses and are referred to as embedded questions.

a. A noun clause introduced by a question word is an embedeed question-word question.

Ex.
- XXXX

b. A noun clause introduced by if or whether is an embedeed yes-no question.

Ex.
- XXXX

c. When a question is embedded,tis word order changes.

Ex.
- XXXX

d. A noun clause can be used as a subject or as an object.

1) Noun clause in the subject position.

Ex.
- XXXX

2) Noun clauses in the object position usually follow phrases like those underlined in the following sentences.

Ex.
- XXXX

7. –EVER WORDS

-Ever words give the idea of “any”. Estaspalabras se consideran siempre "en singular".

|Whoever |quien sea, quienquiera "refiriendose a una persona" |
|Whomever |quien sea, a quien sea |
|Whatever |lo que sea, el que sea, cualquier "refiriendosea una cosa o animal" |
|Wherever |donde sea, donde sea que, donde quiera, donde quiera que |
|Whenever |Cuando sea, cuando sea que, cuando quiera, cuando quiera que |
|Whichever |(cualquier, cualquiera que, cual sea"refiriendose a una cosa o animal |
|However |Como sea, como sea que, como quiera, como quiera que |

Ex.
- XXXX

8. CONDITIONAL CLAUSE WITH IF / PROVIDED (THAT) / PROVIDING (THAT) / UNLESS / IF ... NOT

9. RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS EACH OTHER AND ONE ANOTHER

10. ADVERB CLAUSE OFCAUSE / REASON

|Got to |Gotta | |
|Should have |Shoulda | |
|Could have |Coulda| |
|Don’t you |Don’tcha | |
|Have to |Hafta | |
|Might have|Mighta | |
|Did you |Didja | |
|Don’t know |Dunno | |...
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