Present Perfect Continuous

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Present Perfect Continuous
[Has/have + been + present participle]
* You have been waiting here for two hours.
* Have you been waiting here for two hours?
* You have not been waiting here for two hours.

USE 1 Duration from the Past until Now
We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For fiveminutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous.
* They have been talking for the last hour.
* She has been working at that company for three years.
* What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes?
* James has been teaching at the university since June.
* We have been waiting here for over twohours!
* Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days?

USE 2 Recently, Lately
You can also use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as "for two weeks." Without the duration, the tense has a more general meaning of "lately." We often use the words "lately" or "recently" to emphasize this meaning.
* Recently, I have been feeling reallytired.
* She has been watching too much television lately.
* Have you been exercising lately?
* Mary has been feeling a little depressed.

Remember that the Present Perfect Continuous has the meaning of "lately" or "recently." If you use the Present Perfect Continuous in a question such as "Have you been feeling alright?” it can suggest that the person looks sick orunhealthy. A question such as "Have you been smoking?" can suggest that you smell the smoke on the person. Using this tense in a question suggests you can see, smell, hear or feel the results of the action. It is possible to insult someone by using this tense incorrectly.
REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs
It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuoustenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Present Perfect.
* Sam has been having his car for two years. Not Correct
* Sam has had his car for two years. Correct
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as:always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
* You have only been waiting here for one hour.
* Have you only been waiting here for one hour?
* Recently, John has been doing the work. Active
* Recently, the work has been being done by John. Passive
NOTE: Present Perfect Continuous is less commonly used in its passive form.

Past Perfect
FORM[Had + past participle]
* You had studied English before you moved to New York.
* Had you studied English before you moved to New York?
* You had not studied English before you moved to New York.

USE 1 Completed Action before Something in the Past
The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that somethinghappened before a specific time in the past.
* I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.
* I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
* Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
* Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?
* She only understood the movie because she had read the book.* Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.
* We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.
USE 2 Duration before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)
With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past....
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