ANCIENT CIVILIZATION: RAPANUI
1. Meaning of the civilization name
The name of the civilization means ‘Big Rapa’, in memory of a very similar island.
2. Map(s) of the Ancient Civilization
3. Location (Continent and actual nations).
Ubicated in geographical coordinates 27°7′10″S 109°21′17″W / -27.11944, -109.35472, the islandbelongs to Chile and is situated in Polynesia (Australia)
4. Main ancient cities (mention 5)
4. Ranu Raraku
5. Ana Kakenga
5. Main geographical facts (Hidrography, Relief, Rains, Climate, Population, etc.) at least five.
1. Relief: the island have three inactive volcanoes: Maunga Terevaka, Puakatike and RanuKau. Hills and slopes near the coast in which there are some islets like Motu Nui, Motu Iti, Motu Kaokao, Motu tautara and moto marutiri. Important hills are Rano Roi and Ranu Raraku.
2. Hidrography: The pacific ocean surrounds the island. We can find some gapes inside the crater of the Ranu Kanu volcano.
3. Rains: Regular during all year.
4. Climate: Tropical rain5. Population: around 3.800 people
7. Language: Spanish and rapanui
8. Fauna & flora: Chilenian and other species of palms. We can find Toromiro trees too. There are a lot of animals like alcatraz, the Juan Fernandez lobster, maories rats, sparrows, gulls, anemones and partridges.
1. Pre-Civilization & early settlements
According with theoral tradition, the rapanui arrived to this land from a mitic island called Hiva, guided by the king Hotu Matu’a. He, after his settlement, divided the territory among his sons who originated the clans that formed the stratification of this culture. Archaeological investigations founded settlements near the Poka volcano dating from the year 400 a.C., the oldest ever found.
2. Rise ofcivilization and Fall of civilization (dates and reasons)
Around the year 800 a. C., the construction of ahus (places in which they adorated their forefathers) and moais (rock sculptures used in the construction of the ahus) was in full swing,consolidating the power of the priesthood. In the 1200 a. C., during the Ahu Moai period, they stablished peaceful relations with the andine culture ofTiwanaku who unleashed a second migration to the island. Between the XV and XVIII centuries there was an overpopulation who originated tribal wars, abandonment of the Moais quarries and the consequent destruction of the altars. The first european contact dates back from the year 1722, until 1770 in which the island became an important contact point for the spanien ships. Diseases and visits from peoplededicated to slavery decreased dramatically the population, specially of the priesthood. In 1888, the chileian government signed a treatment who anexed the territory to the country. In the end of the XX century their territories were returned.
3. Main chronological periods of Ancient Civilizations (key events)
1. Arriving to the island and first settlements: approximately 400 a.C.
2. Rise of Civilization: 800 a. C.
3. Relations with the Tiwanaku culture: 1200 a.C.
4. Tribal wars: XV-XVIII centuries
5. First European contact: 1722
6. Fall of civilization: 1770-1888
7. Returning of the territory from the Chilean government: end of the XX century.
4. Important historical figures (mention 5)
-Hotu Matu’a-Atamu Tekena
-María Angata Veri Veri
-Daniel María Teave
3. Social Organization
1. Pyramid of social organization (social groups)
Ranging from the top to the bottom of the pyramid:
1. Ariki mau (supreme leader)
2. nobility: Akiri’s relatives, a caste of main priests, skilled artisans, matatoas (warriors)...
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