Their dirTy SecreT
War Of The Machines
roboTS TranSForM baTTleS
Dna DrUgs anD Vaccines
poTenT TherapieS To coMe
Universe is Leaking
Light seems to lose energy as it crosses the cosmos, apparently breaking the laws of physics. What gives?
WhaT DO BaBies KnOW?
© 2010 Scientific American
Far More Than everexpecTed
contents features scientific american July 2010
Volume 303 number 1
38 stheUniverse I LeakingEnergy?
By Tamara M. Davis
As the cosmos expands, light seems to lose energy, in violation of the laws of physics. What gives?
By Matthew P. Morrow and David B. Weiner
New vaccines and medicines in humantrials offer hope for fighting HIV, influenza and other maladies.
54 heDirtyTruth T aboutPlug-inHybrids
By Michael Moyer
Cars that draw electricity from the grid may not be as clean as you think. The key factor? Where you live.
By P. W. Singer
Thousands of robots now operate in Iraq and Afghanistan. They mark the most profoundtransformation of warfare since the atom bomb.
64 leanEnergyfromFilthyWater C
By Jane Braxton Little
California cities are pumping their treated wastewater underground to create electricity.
By Gareth Dyke
Modern birds, long thought to have arisen after the dinosaurs perished, actually lived alongside them.
on tHe coVer
By some reckoning, the cosmos is leaking energy. Yet, physics tells us, energy is always conserved. The puzzle has an entertaining solution. Photograph by Mark Hooper.
Even the youngest children know, experience and learn far more than scientists ever thought possible.
By Mark Fischetti
A process for extracting natural gas isexpanding despite concern over risks to drinking water.
J u l y 2 0 10
© 2010 Scientific American
timothy archibald (baby)
8 10 14 16
FromtheEditor Letters 50,100&150YearsAgo NewsScan
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
14 28 16
Gulf oil spill and the environmental consequences.
REsEaRch & DIscOVERY
■ ■ ■ ■ ■
Why upto 4 percent of your DNA is Neandertal. Under stress, women bond and men withdraw. Water detected on asteroid. Microbial mat the size of Greece discovered. Early images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory.
MEDIcINE & hEaLTh
New connections between insomnia and addiction. Risks from overuse of popular acid reflux drug.
Manipulating the wisdom of online crowds.Green tech wilts under Patent Office scrutiny.
By Lawrence M. Krauss
Whether volcanic or nuclear, disasters anywhere in our interconnected world affect us all.
By the Editors
The prospect of androids that can hunt and kill on their own should give us all pause.
Earth sans ice caps. Biomimetics. Immortality.
By Jeffrey D. Sachs
Why curbing public debt is so crucial.
By Steve Mirsky
Cruising with Mac fans.
By Michael Shermer
When scientists sin.
Urban Visions: Cities of 2030 What will population centers look like in 20 years’ time? Innovations in urban agriculture, distributed energy and mass transit should make futurecities both more sustainable and more self-reliant, for starters. More at www.scientificamerican.com/jul2010
Scientific American (ISSN 0036-8733), Volume 303, Number 1, July 2010, published monthly by Scientific American, a trading name of Nature America, Inc., 75 Varick Street, 9th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10013-1917. Periodicals postage paid at New York, N.Y., and at additional mailing...
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