1) The Department of Energy projects that between the years 1995 and 2010, the United States will need to build new power plants to generate an additional 150,000 MW of electricity to meet theincreasing demand for electric power. One possibility is to build coal-fired power plants, which cost $1300 per kW to construct and have an efficiency of 34 percent. Another possibility is to usethe clean-burning Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants where the coal is subjected to heat and pressure to gasify it while removing sulfur and particulate matter from it. Thegaseous coal is then burned in a gas turbine, and part of the waste heat from the exhaust gases is recovered to generate steam for the steam turbine. Currently the construction of IGCC plants costsabout $1500 per kW, but their efficiency is about 45 percent. The average heating value of the coal is about 28,000,000 kJ per ton (that is, 28,000,000 kJ of heat is released when 1 ton of coalis burned). If the IGCC plant is to recover its cost difference from fuel savings in five years, determine what the price of coal should be in $ per ton.
2) Consider a building whose annualair-conditioning load is estimated to be 120,000 kWh in an area where the unit cost of electricity is $0.10/kWh. Two air conditioners are considered for the building. Air conditioner A has aseasonal average COP of 3.2 and costs $5500 to purchase and install. Air conditioner B has a seasonal average COP of 5.0 and costs $7000 to purchase and install. All else being equal, determine whichair conditioner is a better buy.
3) An automobile engine consumes fuel at a rate of 28 L/h and delivers 60 kW of power to the wheels. If the fuel has a heating value of 44,000 kJ/kg and adensity of 0.8 g/cm3, determine the efficiency of this engine.
4) The performance of a heat pump degrades (i.e., its COP decreases) as the temperature of the heat source decreases. This makes using...
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