CHAPTER 1 THE ACCOUNTANT’S ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION ACCOUNTANT’
See the front matter of this Solutions Manual for suggestions regarding your choices of assignment material for each chapter.
1-1 Management accounting measures, analyzes and reports financial and nonfinancial information that helps managers make decisions to fulfill the goals of an organization. It focuses on internal reportingand is not restricted by generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). Financial accounting focuses on reporting to external parties such as investors, government agencies, and banks. It measures and records business transactions and provides financial statements that are based on generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). Other differences include (1) management accounting emphasizesthe future (not the past), and (2) management accounting influences the behavior of managers and other employees (rather than primarily reporting economic events). 1-2 Financial accounting is constrained by generally accepted accounting principles. Management accounting is not restricted to these principles. The result is that management accounting allows managers to charge interest on owners’capital to help judge a division’s performance, even though such a charge is not allowed under GAAP, management accounting can include assets or liabilities (such as “brand names” developed internally) not recognized under GAAP, and management accounting can use asset or liability measurement rules (such as present values or resale prices) not permitted under GAAP. 1-3 Management accountantscan help to formulate strategy by providing information about the sources of competitive advantage—for example, the cost, productivity, or efficiency advantage of their company relative to competitors or the premium prices a company can charge relative to the costs of adding features that make its products or services distinctive. 1-4 The business functions in the value chain are Research anddevelopment development—generating and experimenting with ideas related to new products, services, or processes. Design of products, services, and processes processes—the detailed planning and engineering of products, services, or processes. Production Production—acquiring, coordinating, and assembling resources to produce a product or deliver a service. Marketing Marketing—promoting andselling products or services to customers or prospective customers. Distribution Distribution—delivering products or services to customers. Customer service service—providing after-sale support to customers.
1-5 Supply chain describes the flow of goods, services, and information from the initial sources of materials and services to the delivery of products to consumers, regardless ofwhether those activities occur in the same organization or in other organizations. Cost management is most effective when it integrates and coordinates activities across all companies in the supply chain as well as across each business function in an individual company’s value chain. Attempts are made to restructure all cost areas to be more cost-effective. 1-6 “Management accounting deals onlywith costs.” This statement is misleading at best, and wrong at worst. Management accounting measures, analyzes, and reports financial and nonfinancial information that helps managers define the organization’s goals, and make decisions to fulfill them. Management accounting also analyzes revenues from products and customers in order to assess product and customer profitability. Therefore, whilemanagement accounting does use cost information, it is only a part of the organization’s information recorded and analyzed by management accountants. 1-7 Management accountants can help improve quality and achieve timely product deliveries by recording and reporting an organization’s current quality and timeliness levels and by analyzing and evaluating the costs and benefits—both financial and...
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