Spanish Constitution of 1812 (CONSTITUTION OF CADIZ)
Oath of the Cortes of Cadiz in the Parish Church of San Fernando Mayor on September 24, 1810. Stated as such in the Congress of Deputies in Madrid.
The promulgation of the 1812 Constitution, the work of Salvador Viniegra (Museo de las Cortes de Cádiz).
Constitution of 1812.
The Spanish Constitution of 1812.1 popularly known as Pepa, wasenacted by the Parliament of Spain, collected extraordinary in Cadiz, March 19, 1812. It has given a great historical importance as it was the first constitution promulgated in Spain, in addition to being one of the most liberal of his time. Regarding the origin of his nickname, the Pepa, it is not clear yet, but it seems like an indirect after repeal to refer to it, because it was enacted theday of San José.
Officially was in force only two years, from its enactment to its repeal in Valencia on 4 May 1814, following the return to Spain of Fernando VII. subsequently reapplied during the Liberal Triennium (1820-1823) and and for a brief period in 1836-1837, under the progressive government which prepared the Constitution of 1837. However, hardly took effect de facto, since in itsgestation period much of Spain was in the hands of pro-French government of Joseph I of Spain, another in hand together more concerned interim organize their opposition to Joseph I and the rest of the territories of the Spanish crown (the viceroyalties) were in a state of confusion and power vacuum caused by the Napoleonic invasion.
The constitution established sovereignty in the nation (and not theking), the constitutional monarchy, the separation of powers, May 6 limiting the king's powers, indirect universal male suffrage, freedom of the press, freedom of industry , property rights or the fundamental abolition of the feudal, among other issues, so it "did not include a table of rights and freedoms, but picked up some scattered rights in its articles." Also incorporated Spanish citizenshipto all persons born in American territories, virtually one country founded with former colonies Americans.
By contrast, the text devoted to Spain as a Catholic confessional state, expressly prohibiting their art. any other religion, and remained king "by the grace of God and the Constitution" Similarly, the Constitution did not include recognition of any rights for women, not even that of city(the word "woman" it is written only once, on a date within the art accessory. 22), although it was in full agreement with the majority of Spanish society and Europe at that time.
CONSTITUTION OF APATZINGAN
The Constitution of Apatzingan (formally: Constitutional Decree for the Liberty of Mexican America), was enacted on October 22, 1814, by the Congress of Chilpancingo gathered in the cityof Apatzingan because of the persecution of the troops of Felix Maria Calleja . The Constitution was valid for the insurgent forces and gained control of the territories that fleetingly during the course of the war for independence from Mexico.
After the death of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, the June 30, 1813, José María Morelos from Acapulco called to create in September a Congress in the city ofChilpancingo (Guerrero currently), whose purpose was to create an independent government. Proclaimed as the Supreme Mexican Congress, was installed on September 14, 1813, the same day the Assembly announced Morelos a document character program called Feelings of the Nation, in which he declared full independence of Mexican America and established a representative popular government with separationof powers, prohibited slavery and the division of the population into castes. On 6 November the same year, Congress signed the first official document of declaration of independence known as the Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America.
The Constitution of Apatzingan consisted of two titles and 242 articles, was based primarily on the Cadiz Constitution but in a...
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