Andrea Nichole Carrasquillo
Alfred Nobel was born inStockholm on October 21, 1833. His father Immanuel Nobel was an engineer and inventor who built bridges and buildings in Stockholm. In connection with his construction work Immanuel Nobel also experimented with different techniques for blasting rocks.
Alfred's mother, born Andriette Ahlsell, came from a wealthy family. Due to misfortunes in his construction work caused by the lossof some barges of building material, Immanuel Nobel was forced into bankruptcy the same year Alfred Nobel was born. In 1837 Immanuel Nobel left Stockholm and his family to start a new career in Finland and in Russia. To support the family, Andriette Nobel started a grocery store which provided a modest income. Meanwhile Immanuel Nobel was successful in his new enterprise in St. Petersburg,Russia. He started a mechanical workshop which provided equipment for the Russian army and he also convinced the Tsar and his generals that naval mines could be used to block enemy naval ships from threatening the city.
Intensive work and travel did not leave much time for a private life. At the age of 43 he was feeling like an old man. At this time he advertised in a newspaper "Wealthy,highly-educated elderly gentleman seeks lady of mature age, versed in languages, as secretary and supervisor of household." The most qualified applicant turned out to be an Austrian woman, Countess Bertha Kinsky. After working a very short time for Nobel she decided to return to Austria to marry Count Arthur von Suttner. In spite of -Alfred Nobel and Bertha von Suttner remained friends and kept writingletters to each other for decades. Over the years Bertha von Suttner became increasingly critical of the arms race. She wrote a famous book, Lay Down Your Arms and became a prominent figure in the peace movement. No doubt this influenced Alfred Nobel when he wrote his final will which was to include a Prize for persons or organizations who promoted peace. Several years after the death of AlfredNobel, the Norwegian Storting (Parliament) decided to award the 1905 Nobel Peace Prize to Bertha von Suttner.
Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Peace.
In 2011, each prize was worth 10 million (US.$1.45 million). The prize is not awarded posthumously; however, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, theprize may still be presented. A prize may not be shared among more than three people. The average number of laureates per prize has increased substantially over the 20th century.
The announcement of the Nobel Laureates and the Laureates in Economic Sciences for the year is made on the same day that the Nobel Prize awarding institutions choose from among the names recommended by the respectiveNobel Committees. Immediately after the vote, a press conference is held by the concerned Nobel Prize awarde
Nobel Prize of Physics
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011 was divided, one half awarded to Saul Perlmutter, the other half jointly to Brian P. Schmidt and Adam G. Riess "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations ofdistant supernovae".
Saul Perlmutter: hes from Champaign-Urbana, IL, USA
his award is for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae.
Brian P. Schmidt:hes from Weston Creek, Australia
his award is for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"...