Analisis y contrastes morfólógicos inglés español

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Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the identification, analysis and description of the structure of morphemes and other units of meaning in a language like words, affixes, and parts of speech and intonation/stress, implied context (words in a lexicon are the subject matter of lexicology). Morphological typology represents a way of classifying languages according to the waysby which morphemes are used in a language —from the analytic that use only isolated morphemes, through the agglutinative ("stuck-together") and fusional languages that use bound morphemes (affixes), up to the polysynthetic, which compress lots of separate morphemes into single words.

While words are generally accepted as being (with clitics) the smallest units of syntax, it is clear that inmost (if not all) languages, words can be related to other words by rules (grammars). For example, English speakers recognize that the words dog and dogs are closely related — differentiated only by the plurality morpheme "-s," which is only found bound to nouns, and is never separate. Speakers of English (a fusional language) recognize these relations from their tacit knowledge of the rules of wordformation in English. They infer intuitively that dog is to dogs as cat is to cats; similarly,dog is to dog catcher as dish is to dishwasher (in one sense). The rules understood by the speaker reflect specific patterns (or regularities) in the way words are formed from smaller units and how those smaller units interact in speech. In this way, morphology is the branch of linguistics that studiespatterns of word formation within and across languages, and attempts to formulate rules that model the knowledge of the speakers of those languages.

A language like Chinese instead uses unbound ("free") morphemes, but which depend on tone, post-phrase affixes, and word order to convey meaning:

"The dog ate my cat": 狗吃了我的貓。 Gloss:[dog-eat-[subject marker] my-[of]-cat]. (Pinyin: gǒu​ chī​jí le liǎo​ wǒ​de​ māo​)
"The dogs ate my cat": 我的貓,狗吃[吃]。 Gloss: [my-of-cat, dog-eat] (Pinyin: wǒ​de​ māo gǒu​ chī​ [jí]). Here a 吃 (jí) is implied by the word order, which (in turn) makes the act of eating plural, which indicates (in turn) to the plurality of "dog" as "dogs."
In the Chinese languages, these are understood as grammars that represent the morphology of thelanguage. Beyond the agglutinative languages, a polysynthetic language like Chukchi will have words composed of many morphemes: The word "təmeyŋəlevtpəγtərkən" is composed of eight morphemes t-ə-meyŋ-ə-levt-pəγt-ə-rkən, that can be glossed 1.SG.SUBJ-great-head-hurt-PRES.1, meaning 'I have a fierce headache.' The morphology of such languages allow for each consonant and vowel to be understood as morphemes,just as the grammars of the language key the usage and understanding of each morpheme.

La morfología como disciplina lingüística

El término morfología proviene del griego μορφ-, morph ('forma') y λογία logía ('tratado', 'ciencia'); así, el todo significa literalmente 'ciencia (o estudio) de la forma'. En efecto, se habla de la morfología de las plantas, de la morfología de los seres vivos,de la morfología del relieve terrestre, etc.

Pero en lingüística, este término ha adquirido un significado especializado: 'estudio de las formas de las palabras' y, por extensión, 'estudio de la palabra'. Esto se remonta a una tradición iniciada en los trabajos de Baudouin de Courtnay según la cual están formadas por raíces y afijos que realizan la función del signo saussureano. Y aunquetambién se deba hablar en lingüística de la forma de los sintagmas y/o de las frases, el término morfología no se aplica a estos últimos; es la palabra, y solamente la palabra, lo que constituye el objeto de la morfología lingüística de acuerdo a un uso general.

La posición en la morfología gramatical es intermedia. Para la tradición estructuralista americana de Bloomfield, la morfología era...
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