Pidginization

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Pidginization

"The development into a pidgin." (C: 428) As a complex process of sociolinguistic change, it involves reduction of linguistic resources and restriction of use (Hymes). As a processof acquisition under restricted conditions, it involves the learning of a second language by speakers of different language of the dominant group (Bickerton). (R: 2) (Compare to creolization.)Pidginization hypothesis of second language learning

– "Pidginization may be a universal first stage in second language acquisition, which results initially from cognitive constraints and then persistsdue to social and psychological ones," argues Schumann. This would explain why some second language learners end up using a simplified and restricted variety of the L2: "Schumann claims thatAlberto's speech is pidginization as a result of his social and psychological distance from English speakers.

Creole language
A creole is a language descended from a pidgin that has become the nativelanguage of a group of people. Study of Creole languages around the world (in particular by Derek Bickerton) has shown that they display remarkable similarities in grammar, lending support to the theoryof a Universal Grammar. The majority of creole languages are based on English and other Indo-European languages (their superstrate language), with local or immigrant languages as substrate languages.In some cases the group of people who speak such a language are called Creoles.

ACCULTURATION

Definition

Acculturation is a process in which members of one cultural group adopt the beliefsand behaviors of another group. Although acculturation is usually in the direction of a minority group adopting habits and language patterns of the dominant group, accult uration can be reciprocal--thatis, the dominant group also adopts patterns typical of the minority group. Assimilation of one cultural group into another may be evidenced by changes in language preference, adoption of common...
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