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Grammar and Exercises

David Fux Luzern (Switzerland), August 2009 www.nubuk.com ~1~

Grammar and Exercises

Present Simple Present Progressive Ex.: The Present Tenses Ways of Expressing the Future Ex.: The Future Tenses Ex.: Future Progressive Ex.: Future Perfect Present Perfect Simple Ex.: Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive Ex.: The Present Perfect TensesPast Simple Ex.: Present Perfect or Past Simple Past Progressive Ex.: Past Simple or Past Progressive Past Perfect Ex.: Past Perfect or Past Simple Past Perfect Progressive Ex.: Past Perfect Simple or Progressive Tenses I Tenses II Tenses III Tenses IV

3 4 5 7 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 29 31 33


Present Simple

1. Formation The present simple has the form ofthe infinitive. But in the 3rd person singular only, we add -s. Negative statements and questions are formed with do/does. I write. She writes. I don’t write. She doesn’t write. Do I write? Does she write?

2. Use We use the present simple to say that something happens repeatedly, regularly, normally, often, always or never. It often occurs with phrases of time such as always, never, often,sometimes, and usually, as well as every summer, on Fridays, after midnight, etc. She often goes to bed after midnight.

The present simple is used to talk about something permanent which is not limited to a particular time. Most young people like trendy clothes.

The present simple is used to talk about texts, e.g. novels, short stories, newspaper articles, films or plays. The novel describes lifein an Irish village.

We use the present simple to describe a series of action, e.g. when giving information or instructions. “How do I get to the station?” “First you go along Victoria Street, then you turn left …”

We use the present simple to say that a future event is a fixed part of a timetable, a programme of events, a schedule or suchlike (the “timetable future”). Verbs such as arrive,open, close, start or stop are often used this way. The next train from Dublin arrives at 10.13.


Present Progressive

1. Formation We form the present progressive with am/is/are + -ing. I am writing. You are not writing. Is she writing?

2. Use The present progressive is used when we want to say that somebody is doing something or that something is happening at the moment. Theaction or event is in progress and not yet complete. Common phrases of time are at the moment, now, just and still. Fiona is washing her hair (at the moment).


The present progressive is used for actions which are not yet complete but can be interrupted for a time. Strictly speaking, such interrupted actions are not in progress at the moment of speaking. I’m very busy. I’m redecorating myliving-room.

We use the present progressive to express the idea that a repeated action is temporary, i.e. it is happening for a limited period of time. Patrick is working at a restaurant during his holidays.

We can use the adverb always with the present progressive to say that something happens again and again, although not at regular intervals. Here always means very often or too often. Thestructure expresses the speaker’s annoyance or surprise. You’re always forgetting your books!

We use the present progressive to say that something is definitely planned or arranged for the future. It must be clear from the context or from the use of a phrase of future time (this afternoon, on Sunday, next week, etc.) that we are talking about the future. We’re having a barbecue on Sunday.
~4~ Ex.: The Present Tenses

Put the following verbs into the correct tense—either the present simple or the present progressive. Use all the elements in the brackets. Note the importance of certain key words. Use a highlighter to indicate the key words. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38....
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