GRAMMAR LEVEL 400
MISS ANGELA DURÁN
UNIT 3 PART II: LINKINGS OF CONTRAST
When we want to make two points, and emphasize that one of them contrasts with the other, there are a number of different words and expressions that we can use.
Probably the most common and simplest word to use is the conjunction but. It comes between the two clauses that you wish to contrast:
The teamwas beaten, but Paul scored three goals.
I don't like most sweet food, but I love chocolate. A subordinating conjunction is a word which joins together a dependent clause and an independent clause. We will explain the most common subordinating conjunctions and how to use them.
What is a dependent clause?
A clause is a unit which contains a subject and a verb. For example, “Itwas raining” is a clause; the subject is “it”, and the verb is “was raining”. A dependent clause is a clause which cannot exist on its own; it needs a main (or independent) clause to go with it. For example:
Because it was raining, I took my umbrella.
This sentence contains two clauses, “Because it was raining” and “I took my umbrella”. The first clause does not mean anything on its own. Ifyou say “Because it was raining”, and nothing else, people will not be able to understand what you mean. However, “I took my umbrella” is an independent clause — we can understand what it means even if it is alone.
2. Joining clauses together with subordinating conjunctions
Examine the example sentence :
It was raining, so I took my umbrella.
. This is a subordinating conjunction. It isused to show the relationship between the two clauses. A subordinating conjunction usually comes at the beginning of the dependent clause, but the dependent clause itself can be before the main clause (usually followed by a comma) or after it (sometimes following a comma):
Although it was hot, he was wearing a coat.
He was wearing a coat although it was hot.
3. Important subordinatingconjunctions
Some of the most important subordinating conjunctions fall into two groups: contrast, and cause and effect.
|Conjunction |Function |Example |
|although |express contrast between ideas |Although she's small, she's very strong.|
|(even) though | |John is short, whereas Mary is tall. |
|whereas | | |
|while || |
|because |show a cause/effect relationship between ideas |I lost my job because I was often late. |
|as | |Since I have no money, I can't go to the movie. |
|since| | |
LET’S PRACTICE : Choose the best conjunction for each sentence.
1. Jun couldn't buy any Christmas presents, ________ he didn't have any money.
1. even though
2 Paula got the job, ________ she had no experience.1. even though
3.I will be late today, ________ my car has broken down.
4. Jerry passed the exam first time, ________ I had to retake it three times.
5. ________ it was raining, I didn't get wet.
6. I don't drink...
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