Dhammapada: The 423 verses in the collection known a The Dhammapada are attributed to the Buddha himself and form the essence of the ethics of Buddhist philosophy.
Lao Tse (Tao Te King): Tao Te Ching, also simply referred to as the Laoziis a Chinese classic text. According to tradition, it was written around the 6th century BC by the sage Laozi (or Lao Tzu, Laozi =was a philosopher of ancientChina = “Old Master"), a record-keeper at the Zhou Dynasty court, by whose name the text is known in China. The text's true authorship and date of composition or compilation are still debated, although the oldest excavated text dates back to the late 4th century BC.
The text is fundamental to both philosophical and religious Taoism and strongly influenced other schools, such as Legalism,Confucianism and Chinese Buddhism, which when first introduced into China was largely interpreted through the use of Daoist words and concepts. Many Chinese artists, including poets, painters, calligraphers, and even gardeners have used the Daodejing as a source of inspiration. Its influence has also spread widely outside East Asia, and is amongst the most translated works in world literatureTaoism (modernly: Daoism) is a philosophical and religious tradition that emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (modernly romanized as "Dao"). The term Tao means "way", "path" or "principle", and can also be found in Chinese philosophies and religions other than Taoism. In Taoism, however, Tao denotes something that is both the source and the driving force behind everything that exists. It isultimately ineffable: "The Tao that can be told is not the eternal Tao.Three Treasures: compassion, moderation, and humility.
Zhuangzi was an influential Chinese philosopher who lived around the 4th century BCE
Zhuangzi's philosophy is skeptical, -> life is limited and knowledge to be gained is unlimited. To use the limited to pursue the unlimited = foolish.
our most carefully consideredconclusions might seem misguided had we experienced a different past. Zhuangzi argues that in addition to experience, our natural dispositions are combined with acquired ones—including dispositions to use names of things, to approve/disapprove based on those names and to act in accordance to the embodied standards
Zhuangzi's thought can also be considered a precursor of relativism in systems ofvalue. His relativism even leads him to doubt the basis of pragmatic arguments (that a good course of action preserves our lives) since this presupposes that life is good and death bad.
The Bhagavad Gita is one of the fundamental texts of Hinduism, and documents the conversation between Krishna and Arjuna as Arjuna prepares to go into battle against the Kauravas for battle of thekingdom of Hastinapura.
It is dated sometime between 1000 and 700 B.C.E., close to when recorded history began in India, and when the battle that became the Mahabarata supposedly occurred.
The Gita is now considered as seminal a text as the Koran, the Bible, and other bases of major religions. But the Gita is seen as less a religious than a philosophical text, outlining a way of life.
SummaryArjuna doesn't want to fight. He doesn't understand why he has to shed his family's blood for a kingdom that he doesn't even necessarily want. In his eyes, killing his evil and killing his family is the greatest sin of all. He casts down his weapons and tells Krishna he will not fight. Krishna, then, begins the systematic process of explaining why it is Arjuna's dharmic duty to fight and how hemust fight in order to restore his karma.
Krishna presents three main concepts for achieving this dissolution of the soul -- renunciation, selfless service, and meditation. All three are elements for achieving 'yoga,' or skill in action. Krishna says that the truly divine human does not renounce all worldly possessions or simply give up action, but rather finds peace in completing action in the...
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