Plan of Ayala (Spanish: Plan de Ayala) was a document drafted by revolutionary leader Emiliano Zapata during the Mexican Revolution. In it, Zapata denounced President Francisco I. Madero for hisperceived betrayal of the revolutionary ideals, embodied in Madero's Plan de San Luis, and set out his vision of land reform. The Plan was first proclaimed on November 25, 1911 in the town of Ayala,Morelos, and was later amended on June 19, 1914.
BackgroundZapata had supported Madero against the regime of Porfirio Díaz. Díaz was deposed and Madero was elected president. He took office on June7, 1911, and soon after had a meeting with Zapata where he demanded the disarmament of Zapata's army as a precondition for discussion of the land issue. Unsatisfied, Zapata returned to Morelos arguingthat if the people were not able to achieve justice after rising in arms, there was no guarantee they would achieve it without them. Finally, after Madero's appointment of a governor who supportedplantation owners and his failure to settle the land issue to Zapata's satisfaction, Zapata mobilized his army again.
 The PlanThe Plan was drafted with the help of local schoolteacher—andZapata's mentor—Otilio Montaño Sánchez. It detailed Zapata's ideology and vision succinctly in the cry ""Reforma, Libertad, Justicia y Ley!" ("Reform, Freedom, Justice and Law!"), later (afterZapata's death) shortened to "Tierra y Libertad!" ("Land and Freedom!", a phrase first used by Ricardo Flores Magón as the title for one of his books). The main points in the Plan were:
Rejectionof Madero's presidency and a call for free elections once the situation in the country had stabilized;
Naming of Pascual Orozco as the legitimate leader of the Revolution;
Devolution of land andproperty to townships and citizens, as opposed to being owned by large hacendados;
Confirmation of the agrarian nature of the Revolution.
The June 1914 amendment was prompted by Orozco's betrayal of...
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