Sexual Assault and its Response in Today’s World:
Perspectives from Different Environments and Demographics
Even though the United States has modern laws that provide healing for certain crimes, it has had the highest rate of sexual assault per capital of any industrialized country for decades (Donelson, 1999). It is estimated that 1 in 5 women arevictims of rape, and 1 out of 6 rapes are not reported, making it the most underreported crime (De Santis, 2000). Sexual assault presents problems across cultures, gender, sexual orientation, ethnic backgrounds, locations, systems and organizations.
Males are not included in the official data because of the definition. Homosexuals tend to be slightly more assaulted than heterosexuals. NativeAmerican women have the highest rape victimization rate. The elderly, homeless, immigrants and the disable are also at risk because of their social status, cognitive and behavioral abilities, and public disbelief. Regardless of those elements, women in college see an increase of their victimization for different reasons, the main one is related the alcohol, which in no way should be the reason toblame them. New laws led universities to change policies and procedures of sexual assault. This also allowed college officials to receive grants to prevent rape and help survivors. Intervention techniques and different actors of the criminal justice system partake to provide the best possible post-assault service. Such system faces problems when the demographics and other elements are taken intoaccount. Even the Federal government presents an issue in its definition.
Gender and Sexual Orientation Issues in Sexual Assault
The etymology of the word rape comes from the Latin word “rapere” which means take by force. Such word does not differ from race, class, or more significantly: gender. However the Uniform Crime Report, issued by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, defines rape as the“carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. Attempts or assaults to commit rape by force or threat of force are also included; however, statutory rape (without force) and other sex offenses are excluded” (U.S. Department of Justice, 2009). The FBI has been using this tool since 1930 and although men rape occurs rarely, they should not be omitted.
Different sources estimate 1 in 33men are rape victims (Tjaden & Thoennes, 1998). Men are less likely to be raped, and much more less likely to report this crime because it is rare and the act itself is embarrassing. Ejaculation is not always within conscious control but involuntary physiological reaction due to prostate stimulation. This technique used by certain offenders is extra humiliating and confuses physical evidence.It is particularly stressful for recovery, so it is important to let the victim know how physiological processes work. Along with the confusion, male victims may present the following physical responses: loss of appetite, nausea and/or stomachaches, headaches, loss of memory and/or concentration, and changes in sleep patterns. These symptoms are often presented with psychological responses, such asdenial, loss of self-respect, flashbacks, anger and anxiety, retaliation fantasies, compulsive behavior, and fear of losing control (National Center for Victims of Crime, 2008). Moreover, this heinous crime stigmatizes homosexuals due to the popular belief of men raping men are gay.
Gay men suffer from sexual assault slightly more often than heterosexual men due to anti-gay hate crime and dueto being more at risk for date rape (Stemple, 2009). The vast majority of men who sexually assault men identify as straight. Such finding indicates and reinforces that sexual assault is more about violence, anger domination, and control over another person, rather than just about sex. Because homosexuals tend to be sexually assaulted more often than their heterosexual counterparts, they are...
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