TO BE [=ser, estar] Como todos los verbos auxiliares, para hacer la negativa se le añade NOT y para la interrogativa basta con cambiar el orden (en lugar de Sujeto + Verbo, ponemos Verbo + Sujeto?). Simple Present I am (I'm) You are (You're) He/She/It is (He's/ she's/ It's) We are (We're) You are (You're) They are (They're) Simple Past I was You were He/She/It was We were You were They were Iwasn't You weren't He/She/It wasn't We weren't You weren't They weren't Was I? Were you? Was he/she/it? Were we? Were you? Were they? I'm not You aren't He/she/it isn't We aren't You aren't They aren't Am I? Are you? Is he/she/it? Are we? Are you? Are they?
THERE BE [=haber impersonal: "hay", "había"] Simple Present There is There are Simple Past There was There were There wasn't There weren't Wasthere? Were there? There isn't There aren't Is there? Are there?
Nota: funciona igual que el verbo TO BE, pero colocando el pronombre impersonal «there» como sujeto, tanto en tiempos compuestos: "There has been enough money" como con verbos modales: "There must be a reason". TO HAVE (GOT) [=tener] Simple Present I have (I've) got You have (You've) got He/She/It has (He's) got We have (We've)got You have (You've) got They have (They've) got I haven't got You haven't got He/She/It hasn't got We haven't got You haven't got They haven't got Have I got? Have you got? Has he/she/it got? Have we got? Have you got? Have they got?
TO HAVE [verbo principal = tomar, comer...] Simple Present I have You have He/She/It has We have You have They have Simple Past I had You had He/She/It hadWe had You had They had I didn't have You didn't have He/She/It didn't have We didn't have You didn't have They didn't have Did I have? Did you have? Did he/she/it have? Did we have? Did you have? Did they have? I don't have You don't have He/She/It doesn't have We don't have You don't have They don't have Do I have? Do you have? Does he/she/it have? Do we have? Do you have? Do they have?EXPRESIONES CON «BE» y «HAVE» En inglés, las expresiones «tener X años, hambre, sed, frío, calor, cuidado, miedo» se forman con BE + adjetivo: «be X years old, hungry, thirsty, cold, hot, careful, afraid» También la hora se expresa con BE: What's the time? / What time is it? It is [hour] o'clock It is (a) quarter past [hour] It is half past [hour] It is (a) quarter to [hour] It is [minutes past [hour]It is [minutes] to [hour] Igualmente se expresa con BE el tiempo atmosférico: What's the weather like? It's hot / warm / nice / cool / cold / sunny / cloudy / windy / raining / snowing En inglés, los verbos de las comidas se forman con HAVE + el nombre de la comida: «have breakfast, lunch, dinner, tea, supper» Otras expresiones con HAVE: «have a shower, a bath, a walk, a rest, a look, a cigarette,a drink» PRONOMBRES PERSONALES y POSESIVOS Los pronombres personales pueden ser de SUJETO (siempre son sujeto de un verbo y es la única función que pueden cumplir) y de OBJETO (directo, indirecto, preposicional). Los posesivos pueden ser ADJETIVOS (van siempre delante de un nombre, como cualquier adjectivo) y PRONOMBRES (sustituyen a un nombre con adjetivo posesivo; nunca llevan artículo. Ej: "mybooks" −−−> "mine"; no *the mine, ni *mines). personal pronouns possessive 2
subject I you he she it we you they
object me you him her it us you them
adjectives my your his her its our your their
pronouns mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs
REGLAS DEL PLURAL Regla general: añadir una −S al singular: book −−> bookS, tree −−> treeS Si el nombre acaba en: −s, −ss, −sh, −ch, −x,−o, añadimos −ES: bus .... busES, class .... classES, dish .... dishES, match .... matchES, box .... boxES, tomato .... tomatoES Si el nombre acaba en −y precedida de consonante, la −Y se cambia por −I y añadimos −ES: candy .... candIES (si la −y va precedida de vocal, se sigue la regla general: boy .... boyS) Si el nombre termina en −f o −fe, se cambia por −V y se añade −ES: thief .......
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