* Proteins, structure (primary, secondary, tertiary)
* amino acids (essential and non essential, needed in childhood),
* Peptide bond.
* function of proteins,
* where is the information to make them found (briefly describe the process)
Carbohydrates (saccharides) are organic compounds that consist of carbon hydrogen and oxygen.
Carbohydrates are divided in four groups:monosacharidies, disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. The mono saccharides and disaccharides are smaller and are referred as sugars. (prefix –ose)
Carbohydrates have many roles in living things. Polysacharrides serve for the storage of energy. They include many important biomolecules that play key roles in the immnune system, and fertilization.
Carbohydrates are the most abundantclass of organic compound found in living organisms. They orygynate as products in photosynthesis and other chemical reactions.
Carbohydrares are a source of metabolic energy, they also serve as structural material(cellulose).
Arbohydrates are called saccharides and of they are really small thet are called sugars.
How the body uses carbohydrates?
The body breaks the carbohydrates you eatinto simple sugars, which are absorbed into the blooddtream. As the sugar rises in your body you produce an hormome called insulin. It is needed to move sugar from the blood to the cells, where the sugar can be used as energy.
The carbohydrates have the general fomula CH2O
Starch and cellulose are two common carbohydrates.
Monosaccharides are the simpliest carbohydrate. : C6H12O6
* glucose,"blood sugar", the immediate source of energy for cellular respiration
* galactose, a sugar in milk (and yogurt), and
* fructose, a sugar found in honey.
Glucose, galactose, and fructose are "single" sugars or monosaccharides. Two monosaccharides can be linked together to form a "double" sugar or disaccharide.
Three common disaccharides:
* sucrose — common tablesugar = glucose + fructose
* lactose — major sugar in milk = glucose + galactose
* maltose — product of starch digestion = glucose + glucose
carbohydrates are the main enegy source for the human body. Theya re organic molecules made of carbon hydrogen and oxygen. Animals break sown carbohydrates during metabolisms to relaease energy
all carbohydrates are made up ofunits of sugar. (saccharides) carbohydrates that contain only one sugar unit are called monosaccharides and the one with two sugar units are calles disaccharides. Thety are broken down quickly in the body to release energy. Two common monosaccharides are glusoce and fructose
glucose is the primary form of sugar stored in the human body for energy. Frustose is found in most fruits. They have the sameformula C6H12O6
disaccharides have two sugars units bonded together.
Thet are polymers of the simple sugars. Thet ate long chains of simple sugar units bonded together. (polysaccharides)
Stach is the principal polysaccharide used by plants to store glucose. When humans eat stach an enzyme breaks down the bonds between the repeating glucose units. And then the sugarcan be absorbed by the bloodstream. The body distribudes the glucose to areas where is needed for energy od stores it as special polymer: glycogen. Glycogen is ised by animals to store energy.
Another important polysaccharide is celloulose. Cellulose is a polymer of the monosaccharide glucose. Cellulose can not be digested by humans.
The liver breaks down the carbohydrates and transform themto energy to form tissues
The enzyme that breaks down the carbohydrates are called amylase
Starches; Simple sugars; Sugars; Complex carbohydrates; Diet - carbohydrates; Simple carbohydrates.
Examples of single sugars from foods include:
* Fructose (found in fruits)
* Galactose (found in milk products)
Double sugars include:
* Lactose (found in dairy)
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