Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase change of a substance from a solid to a liquid. The internal energy of a substance is increased, typically by the application ofheat or pressure, resulting in a rise of its temperature to the melting point, at which the rigid ordering of molecular entities in the solid breaks down to a less-ordered state and the solid liquefies.An object that has melted completely is molten. Substances in the molten state generally have reduced viscosity with elevated temperature; an exception to this maxim is the element sulfur, whoseviscosity increases with higher temperatures in its molten state.
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gaseous phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vaporization.When the transition happens from the gaseous phase into the solid phase directly, the change is called deposition.
Condensation is initiated by the formation of atomic/molecular clusters of thatspecies within its gaseous volume—like rain drop or snow-flake formation within clouds—or at the contact between such gaseous phase and a (solvent) liquid or solid surface.
Evaporation is a type ofvaporization of a liquid that occurs only on the surface of a liquid. The other type of vaporization is boiling, which, instead, occurs on the entire mass of the liquid.
On average, the molecules in aglass of water do not have enough heat energy to escape from the liquid. With sufficient heat, the liquid would turn into vapor quickly (see boiling point). When the molecules collide, they transferenergy to each other in varying degrees, based on how they collide. Sometimes the transfer is so one-sided for a molecule near the surface that it ends up with enough energy to 'escape' (evaporate).Liquids that do not evaporate visibly at a given temperature in a given gas (e.g., cooking oil at room temperature) have molecules that do not tend to transfer energy to each other in a pattern...
Leer documento completo
Regístrate para leer el documento completo.