England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to thesouth west, while the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separate it from continental Europe. Most of England comprises the central and southern part of the island of GreatBritain in the North Atlantic. The country also includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.
The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans duringthe Upper Palaeolithic period, but it takes its name from the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in AD 927, and since theAge of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law the basis for thecommon law legal systems of many other countries around the world developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations. The IndustrialRevolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's Royal Society laid the foundations of modern experimental science.
England'sterrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north (for example, the mountainous Lake District, Pennines, and YorkshireDales) and in the south west (for example, Dartmoorand the Cotswolds). The former capital city of England was Winchester until London took over in 1066. Today London is the largest metropolitan area inthe United Kingdom and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. England's population is about 51 million, around 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, and is largely... [continua]
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